Appendix C: The Militiamen

The following is a list of men in the Iron Military District of Utah Territory’s Nauvoo Legion militia whose names have been associated with the Mountain Meadows Massacre. The names have been gathered from a variety of sources that include eyewitness accounts, arrest warrants, criminal indictments, and newspaper articles.

A completely accurate list of those who participated in or witnessed the murder of the California-bound emigrants may be impossible to compile. Many of the participants kept silent about their roles. The testimonies of many witnesses were given fifteen years or more after the massacre. Those who admitted being at the massacre were usually careful not to incriminate themselves and their closest associates.

The names are organized in alphabetical order. Each entry includes life span, as well as age, militia rank (where applicable), residence at the time of the massacre.1 Because of the varying credibility of evidence, a note of [A] or [B] has been placed after each individual’s name and age; [A] indicates there is strong evidence the individual planned, authorized, participated in, or witnessed the killing of emigrants, and [B] indicates that the evidence is inconclusive. Men whose names have been associated with the massacre have not been listed if there is little or no evidence to support that association.2

Adair, George Washington, Jr. (1837–1909), 20. [A] Private, Company I, Fifth Platoon, Washington City. He admitted going to Mountain Meadows with the rest of his company from Washington and was present for the massacre. He possibly served as a messenger between leaders at the Meadows and Cedar City.3 He was indicted and arrested for his role in the massacre, but when prosecutors were unable to build a case against him, the charges were dismissed.4

Allen, Ira (1814–1900), 43. [A] Second Lieutenant, Company E, Fifth Platoon, Cedar City. Philip Klingensmith testified that before the massacre Ira Allen told him a “decree had passed” committing the emigrant company “to destruction.”5 Allen attended the Sunday council meeting on September 6 that discussed the fate of the emigrants. He was one of the men on horseback during the final massacre whose orders were to catch and kill emigrants who attempted to escape the slaughter. After the massacre, he may have helped transport some of the emigrants’ property back to Cedar City.6

Arthur, Benjamin A. (1834–83), 23. [A] Sergeant, Company D, Fourth Platoon, Cedar City. Benjamin Arthur, Josiah Reeves, and Ellott Willden were ordered by John M. Higbee to follow the emigrants and find justification for an Indian attack against them. These three were also to encourage the emigrants to push on to the confluence of Magotsu Creek and the Santa Clara River, where the attack was originally planned to occur.7 John D. Lee reported that Arthur was with William Stewart and Joel White when emigrant William Aden was killed.8 Arthur was present at Mountain Meadows for the final massacre. Ellott Willden, however, told historian Andrew Jenson that Benjamin Arthur was unarmed.9

Arthur, Christopher Jones (1832–1918), 25. [B] Adjutant, Company G, Cedar City. The son-in-law of Isaac C. Haight, he had a confrontation with members of the emigrant train at the iron company store. He went to Mountain Meadows with Elias Morris late on Friday, September 11. The two arrived at the Meadows after the massacre ended.10

Bateman, William (1824–69), 33. [A] Sergeant, Company G, Fourth Platoon, Cedar City. Samuel Pollock recalled traveling with William Bateman to Mountain Meadows. On the day of the final massacre, Bateman carried a white flag toward the emigrants’ camp, allowing John D. Lee to negotiate for their surrender.11

Cartwright, Thomas Henry (1814–73), 42. [A] Private, Company D, Fourth Platoon, Cedar City. Samuel Pollock recalled traveling with him to Mountain Meadows.12

Clark, John Wesley (1818–69), 39. [A] Private, Company I, Third Platoon, Washington City. John Clark began traveling to Mountain Meadows in company with other men from Washington and Santa Clara on Monday, September 7, and arrived at the Meadows the following day.13

Clewes, Joseph (1831–94), 25. [B] Private, Company F, First Platoon, Cedar City. Joseph Clewes carried a message for Isaac C. Haight to Pinto on Monday, September 7, with orders for John D. Lee to stop any attacks on the emigrant train until further notice. As he attempted to return to Cedar City on Tuesday, he was ordered to return to the Meadows by John M. Higbee and therefore may have witnessed the killing of two emigrants who were near Leach’s Spring on their way to get help from Cedar City. Wednesday, Clewes and his brother-in-law Ellott Willden were compelled to don Indian apparel and run through emigrant gunfire. On Friday, shortly before the final massacre, Higbee sent Clewes back to Cedar City to report to Isaac C. Haight.14

Coleman, Prime Thornton (1831–1905), 25. [B] Private, Company H, First Platoon, Fort Clara. Prime Coleman was seen at the Hamblin ranch before the final massacre by Albert Hamblin, a Shoshone who was adopted by Jacob Hamblin.15 Coleman admitted to massacre investigator James H. Carleton that he went with Ira Hatch toward the Muddy River and while traveling through the Beaver Dam Mountains saw the footprints of three emigrant men who escaped from Mountain Meadows. His statement led Carleton to believe that Coleman assisted Hatch in tracking down and killing those men.16

Curtis, Ezra Houghton (1822–1915), 35. [A] Second Lieutenant, Company E, First Platoon, Cedar City. Samuel Pollock said that Ezra Curtis ordered him to go to Mountain Meadows with a group that left Cedar City. Curtis was seen by John D. Lee at the Meadows with other militia officers before the massacre.17

Dame, William Horne (1819–84), 38. [A] Colonel, Iron Military District, Parowan. William H. Dame, the commanding officer of the militia in Iron and Washington counties, and his council in Parowan rejected militia action against the emigrants in deliberations before the initial attacks and again late on the night of Wednesday, September 9. After the Wednesday night meeting, however, Isaac C. Haight consulted with Dame privately, and Dame gave approval to attack the emigrants.18 Dame reportedly regretted that decision and left on Friday, September 11, with Barney Carter, Beason Lewis, and James Lewis to stop the massacre but arrived several hours too late.19 The next morning Dame and Haight argued at Hamblin’s ranch and later near the victims’ bodies over who was responsible for the decision to massacre the emigrants.20 Dame was indicted and arrested, but when no evidence could be procured for his conviction, he was released.21

Dickson, Robert (b. 1807), 50. [B] Private, Company H, Third Platoon, Pinto. Albert Hamblin recalled seeing Robert Dickson with other men from Pinto at Hamblin’s ranch during the week of the massacre.22

Durfee, Jabez (1828–83), 29. [B] Private, Company E, First Platoon, Cedar City. Only John D. Lee’s memoirs place Jabez Durfee at Mountain Meadows before the massacre.23

Freeman, Columbus Reed (1838–1907), 19. [A] Private, Company C, Fifth Platoon, Parowan. Though listed on Parowan militia rolls in June 1857, Freeman may have gone to the Meadows from Washington, where his parents and siblings were living at the time of the massacre. John D. Lee recalled Freeman being with a company from Cedar City.24

Haight, Isaac Chauncey (1813–86), 44. [A] Major, Second Battalion, Cedar City. Some massacre sources assert that Isaac C. Haight was actually a lieutenant colonel, which would make him second only to William Dame over the entire Iron Military District. Militia records, however, do not support this assertion.25 Haight and other Cedar City leaders planned the initial attack on the emigrant company, not expecting it, however, to turn into a wholesale massacre. To hide their role, they hoped to blame Indians for what happened. Later, when some emigrants were killed and others became aware of white involvement in the crime, Haight convinced Dame to let him use local militiamen to help destroy all emigrants old enough to talk.26 Haight arrived at the Meadows late Friday night or early Saturday morning after the massacre.27 On Sunday, as James Haslam delivered Brigham Young’s orders to allow the emigrants to pass through unmolested, Haight “cried like a child” and proclaimed that it was “too late, too late.”28 Haight was one of the nine indicted in September 1874 for their roles in the massacre, but he went into hiding to avoid being arrested.29

Hamblin, Oscar (1833–62), 24. [B] Second Lieutenant, Company H, Second Platoon, Fort Clara. Oscar Hamblin, younger brother of Indian missionary Jacob Hamblin, apparently recruited Paiutes along the Santa Clara River and acted as an Indian interpreter at Mountain Meadows at least until Tuesday, September 8. Jacob Hamblin maintained that his brother brought the Indians to Mountain Meadows and then left.30

Harrison, Richard (1808–82), 49. [A] Second Lieutenant, Company E, Third Platoon, Cedar City. Frank Jorden, a thirteen year-old stepson of Richard Harrison, recalled him talking to Ira Allen about the emigrants before leaving Cedar City with other militiamen. John D. Lee saw Harrison at Mountain Meadows on Thursday, September 10. After the massacre Jorden remembered Harrison having a pair of oxen and a wagon from the slain emigrants.31

Hatch, Ira (1835–1909), 22. [A] Private, Company H, First Platoon, Fort Clara. Although Ira Hatch was not at the final massacre on Friday, September 11, he reportedly led a band of Indians in tracking down and killing three emigrants who escaped from the wagon corral at Mountain Meadows before the final massacre.32 Henry and McCan Young, two Mormons returning from San Bernardino, California, witnessed Hatch’s role in the killing of the last emigrant, who was probably Abel Baker.33

Hawley, George (1824–1905), 32. [B] Sergeant, Company I, Fourth Platoon, Washington City. Although George Hawley’s brothers John and William are often named as massacre participants, only one list, attributed to John D. Lee, identified George at the massacre.34

Hawley, John Pierce (1826–1909), 31. [B] Sergeant, Company I, Fifth Platoon, Washington City. John D. Lee said John Hawley was with other men from Washington and Santa Clara on Monday night just south of Mountain Meadows.35 Hawley denied Lee’s claims, saying, “I was not the John Hawley that Lee speaks of; neither was I there, nor do I know any thing of how it was conducted only from hearsay.” He further claimed to have spoken publicly to Lee and others against the massacre when it was over, despite threats against his life.36

Hawley, William Schroeder (1829–93), 27. [A] Sergeant, Company I, Second Platoon, Washington City. John D. Lee claimed he was with the Washington group that arrived at the Meadows on Tuesday, September 8.37

Higbee, John Mount (1827–1904), 30. [A] Major, Third Battalion, Cedar City. John M. Higbee played a major leadership role in the massacre, not only as a militia major, but also as Cedar City marshal and counselor to stake president Isaac C. Haight. Higbee attempted to arrest one or more of the emigrants while they were in Cedar City.38 He met with other leaders at Cedar City when the attacks on the emigrants were planned.39 He led a group of men that left Cedar City on Tuesday and arrived at the Meadows on Wednesday.40 Higbee went back to Cedar City and returned to the Meadows late Thursday night with orders from Isaac C. Haight to kill all the emigrants old enough to talk.41 As a militia commander, he gave the signal that initiated the final massacre.42 Philip Klingensmith recalled seeing Higbee kill an emigrant who appeared to know him and called him by name.43 Once the massacre was over, Higbee searched the bodies of the emigrants for valuables.44 Higbee was one of the nine indicted in September 1874 for their roles in the massacre.45 Higbee would avoid capture until the charges against him were dropped in 1896.46

Hopkins, Charles (1810–63), 47. [A] Private, Company D, First Platoon, Cedar City. Mormon Battalion veteran Charles Hopkins traveled to Mountain Meadows with a group from Cedar City. Despite being only a private, Hopkins was considered one of the leaders at the Meadows, probably because of his relatively senior age, prominence in the community, and military experience. He met with other leaders at the Meadows just before the final massacre.47

Humphries, John Samuel (1825–1903), 31. [A] Musician, Company F, Cedar City. Although several lists identify a massacre participant named John Humphries, they give no specifics about his role.48

Hunter, George (1828–82), 29. [A] Sergeant, Company D, First Platoon, Cedar City. John D. Lee saw George Hunter among the other militiamen from Cedar City on the night before the massacre.49 After the massacre, he helped gather the emigrants’ property and stock.50

Jacobs, John (1825–1919), 31. [B] Private, Company E, Fourth Platoon, Cedar City. John D. Lee claimed John Jacobs was at Mountain Meadows shortly before the massacre.51 Seeing his name published in connection with the massacre, Jacobs wrote to the Salt Lake Daily Herald, “I was not there at all, nor indeed within thirty-five miles of the place at the time.”52

Jacobs, Swen (1823–91), 33. [A] Second Lieutenant, Company E, Fourth Platoon, Cedar City. He was identified as being at the Meadows by John D. Lee and Philip Klingensmith.53

Jewkes, Samuel (1823–1900), 34. [B] Musician, Company E, Cedar City. John D. Lee identified Samuel Jewkes with other militiamen from Cedar City at the Meadows. However, other information casts some doubt as to whether or not he was present at the massacre.54 He was one of the nine indicted in September 1874 for their roles in the massacre.55 Despite being indicted, he was never tried. The indictment may have resulted from unproven rumors that a child in Jewkes possession was killed for knowing too much about the massacre.56

Johnson, Nephi (1833–1919), 23. [A] Second Lieutenant, Company D, Second Platoon, Fort Johnson. Paiute language interpreter Nephi Johnson met with Isaac C. Haight near Cedar City after news was received about the initial attack on the emigrants. Johnson himself went to the Meadows on Thursday with other reinforcements from Cedar City. He interpreted for John D. Lee as Lee gave instructions for the massacre. Johnson gave the orders on Friday for the Indians to attack.57 During a conversation with a senior Mormon leader from Salt Lake City in 1895, Johnson said that “white men did most of the killing.”58

Klingensmith, Philip (1815–81?), 42. [A] Private, Company D, First Platoon, Cedar City. Though only a private, he was considered a key supporter of the massacre and used his role as local bishop to exert his influence.59 Traveling to the Meadows late Tuesday, September 8, he killed one of two emigrants found in the cedars near Leach’s Spring.60 He admitted shooting one of the emigrant men on Friday.61 He also reportedly had one of the children killed.62 Most of the remaining surviving children were taken back to Cedar City, where Klingensmith aided in finding homes for them. After the massacre he took initial control of much of the emigrant property, some of which was stored in the Cedar City tithing office. He gave an affidavit in 1871 concerning his role in the massacre, which was later published. Although Klingensmith was one of the nine men indicted for the massacre, he turned state’s evidence at Lee’s first trial in 1875, thereby gaining immunity from prosecution.63

Knight, Samuel (1832–1910), 24. [A] Private, Company H, Second Platoon, Fort Clara. Samuel Knight was living at the Hamblin ranch at Mountain Meadows during the late summer of 1857. He received orders from Cedar City to recruit Indians near Washington and Santa Clara for an anticipated attack on the emigrants “at the junction of the Santa Clara and Magotsu.” Knight returned to Mountain Meadows on Monday with fellow Indian missionary, Dudley Leavitt. On the day of the massacre, Knight drove one of the lead wagons that carried the wounded emigrants and the young children. Although Lee said that Knight helped to kill the wounded in the wagons, Knight claimed that he had to use all of his strength to calm his horses who were startled from the gunshots.64 This claim was supported by Nephi Johnson who testified that he saw Samuel Knight “on the ground holding his horses” until the killing was over.65

Leavitt, Dudley (1830–1908), 27. [B] Private, Company H, First Platoon, Fort Clara. When Dudley Leavitt met John D. Lee on Magotsu Creek on Monday night, Lee tried to persuade him to ambush two emigrants who were away from camp making pine tar, but Leavitt refused.66 Leavitt’s son Henry said of his father’s role in the massacre, “It was always my understanding that father was one of the scouts who rode horseback with messages back and forth.” Historian Juanita Brooks recalled her grandfather Dudley Leavitt saying, “I thank God that these old hands have never been stained by human blood.”67

Lee, John Doyle (1812–77), 45. [A] Major, Fourth Battalion, Harmony. Lee led the first attack on the emigrants just before dawn on Monday, September 7.68 He negotiated the emigrants’ surrender and helped kill those in the two lead wagons. During the massacre, he reportedly helped to kill emigrants in the two lead wagons as well as a few others nearby.69 John D. Lee, one of the nine men indicted, was the only person to be tried and executed for his role in the massacre. Although Lee reportedly admitted killing five or six emigrants, his confessions, published posthumously by prosecuting attorney Sumner Howard and Lee’s defense attorney William W. Bishop, maintained that he objected to what was done and did not kill anyone.70

Loveridge, Alexander Hamilton (1828–1905), 29. [A] Sergeant, Company F, Third Platoon, Cedar City. Cedar City resident Henry Higgins saw Loveridge travel with other militiamen bound for Mountain Meadows. John D. Lee recalled seeing Loveridge at the Meadows.71

Macfarlane, Daniel Sinclair (1837–1914), 20. [A] Adjutant, Company D, Cedar City. As adjutant, it was Daniel Macfarlane’s job to carry orders on horseback to leaders in different parts of the field.72 When the emigrants proceeded out of their wagon corral fortifications, Macfarlane headed the group of women and children behind the lead wagons.73 As one of the men on horseback, Macfarlane was to prevent any of the emigrants from attempting to escape.74

Macfarlane, John Menzies (1833–92), 23. [B] Adjutant, Second Battalion, Cedar City. There is debate about whether John Macfarlane was at the massacre. Judge John Cradlebaugh issued a warrant for his arrest in 1859.75 Lee’s confession in Mormonism Unveiled asserts Macfarlane’s presence, but with some uncertainty.76 Macfarlane served as an attorney on the defense team for Dame and Lee in 1875, and there is speculation that Lee’s lead attorney and editor, William W. Bishop, added Macfarlane’s name to Lee’s original manuscript because of a personal dislike for him.

McMurdy, Samuel (1830–1922), 26. [A] Private, Company E, First Platoon, Cedar City. Samuel McMurdy carried Cedar City militiamen to the Meadows in his wagon the night before the massacre.77 During the massacre, McMurdy drove the lead wagon and according to John D. Lee assisted in killing the wounded in the two wagons.78 After the massacre McMurdy transported some of the surviving children back to Cedar City.79

Mangum, James Mitchell (1820–88), 37. [A] Private, Company I, Fourth Platoon, Washington City. James Mangum claimed he was recruited to go to Mountain Meadows by Carl Shirts to help with Indians but returned home after the Indians threatened his life.80 William Young, however, recalled returning to Washington with Mangum after the massacre.81

Mangum, John (1817–85), 40. [B] Private, Company I, Fourth Platoon, Washington City. John D. Lee’s memoirs claim John Mangum helped him talk to Paiutes at Mountain Meadows some time before the final massacre but may have mistaken James for John.82

Mathews, James Nicholas (1827–71), 30. [B] Second Lieutenant, Company I, Second Platoon, Washington City. John D. Lee was the only witness who identified Mathews, saying he saw him with other men from Washington on Monday night, September 7.83

Morris, Elias (1825–98), 32. [A] Captain, Company E, Cedar City. Though not at the massacre, Morris was involved in its planning at Cedar City as captain of a company that included many eventual participants and as second counselor to stake president Isaac C. Haight. His mother, Barbara Morris, was reportedly threatened by members of the emigrant train as they passed through Cedar City. Morris later claimed that at the September 6 council meeting, he “opposed severe measures” against the emigrants and suggested postponing any action until counsel could be received from Brigham Young.84 On Wednesday evening he accompanied Haight to Parowan. Although he said he attended only the council at William Dame’s house that agreed to send aid to the emigrants, evidence suggests he was also at the “tan bark council” in which Dame gave Haight approval for the massacre.85 One notable massacre participant, William C. Stewart, implicated Morris in the decision to kill the emigrants. In an 1890 letter, Stewart, impoverished and in hiding, recalled a conversation he had with Church Apostle Erastus Snow: “He [Snow] asked me if Elias Morris sent me any money. I said no. He said if he would lend you $1000 it is nothing but what he aught to do.” Stewart later added, “To save [Morris] & others, I am an Exile. He was I. C. H[aight’s] Councler & only for him & a few more I would not bee here.”86 Morris, along with Christopher J. Arthur, made his way to the Meadows on Friday but did not get there until after the massacre.87

Pearce, Harrison (1818–89), 38. [A] Captain, Company I, Washington City. Harrison Pearce led militia men from Washington toward Mountain Meadows on Monday, September 7, arriving the next day.88 John Hawley recalled Pearce making inflammatory speeches against non-Mormons in a public meeting after the massacre.89

Pearce, James (1839–1922), 18. [A] Private, Company I, Fifth Platoon, Washington City. James Pearce, Harrison’s son, first saw the Arkansas emigrants when he passed them on the road on the way to his family’s home in Washington. He left with the militia from Washington and Santa Clara on Monday and arrived at the Meadows the following day.90 He got sick after eating fresh beef given to the militia at the Meadows and as a result stayed at the militia camp during the massacre.91

Pollock, Samuel (1824–91), 33. [A] Sergeant, Company E, First Platoon, Cedar City. Samuel Pollock was ordered out to the Meadows by his militia officers in Cedar City.92 Pollock had been given guard duty Thursday night and may still have been on duty the next day when he witnessed the massacre from in or near the militia campsite.93

Reeves, Josiah (1835–1914), 21. [B] Private, Company G, First Platoon, Cedar City. Josiah Reeves, along with Ellott Willden and Benjamin Arthur, was sent out from Cedar City by John M. Higbee to follow the emigrants to Mountain Meadows. The three were to gather information that might justify an attack on the emigrants and to encourage them to move on to the confluence of Magotsu Creek and the Santa Clara River, where the first attack was originally planned to occur.94 During the week of the massacre, his brother-in-law Samuel Pollock saw him at Hamblin’s ranch separating Hamblin’s stock from the emigrants’.95 Although he was seen in the area, it is unclear where Reeves was at the time of the final massacre.

Riddle, Isaac (1830–1906), 27. [B] Private, Company H, Fourth Platoon, Harmony. Isaac Riddle, an Indian missionary from Pine Valley, was in Cedar City on Tuesday when he was suddenly rushed home by Isaac C. Haight, who told him there “was a fuss with the Indians,” and he “had better go home and attend to [his] affairs.” Riddle traveled with John M. Higbee’s group of men that left Cedar on Tuesday. Riddle may have witnessed the killing of two emigrants near Leach’s Spring. He said he traveled with the militia group as far as Pinto before turning south toward his home in Pine Valley. Although Riddle did not make it to Mountain Meadows, he may have been sent to look for other emigrants who had gone to make pine tar.96

Robinson, Richard Smith (1830–1902), 26. [B] Second Lieutenant, Company H, Third Platoon, Pinto. Richard Robinson, considered the leader of the Pinto settlement, received messages from leaders in Cedar City in the days leading to the massacre. One of the messages Robinson saw was the one Joseph Clewes delivered to Amos Thornton calling for hostilities against the emigrants to cease until word could be received from Brigham Young in Salt Lake City. Albert Hamblin remembered seeing Robinson at Hamblin’s ranch with other men from Pinto. He may have been there to pass on one of those messages. Though it appears that Robinson and the other Indian missionaries from Pinto were not directly involved in the massacre, they were keenly aware of the developments at the Meadows throughout the week. When Edward Dalton and Jesse N. Smith reached Pinto on Wednesday, September 9, the Pinto missionaries told them of the unraveling siege at the Meadows. Dalton and Smith immediately returned to Parowan to report to Dame where they “expressed much disgust over what they had seen and learned, as John D. Lee and other white men were assuming a very hostile attitude toward the emigrants in connection with the Indians.”97

Shirts, Don Carlos (Carl) (1836–1922), 21. [A] Second Lieutenant, Company H, Fourth Platoon, Harmony. Don Carlos Shirts was sent by his father-in-law John D. Lee to recruit Paiutes and white militia in the Santa Clara and Washington region.98 At Mountain Meadows, Shirts was given responsibility over the Indians.99 Although Don Carlos appeared to carry out his duty as Indian interpreter and leader, Lee referred to him as “cowardly” and “made him suffer for being a coward.”100 According to Shirts’s son Ambrose, Lee made these comments because Don Carlos gave orders to the Indians that were in direct contradiction to the orders given him by Lee. After the massacre, Mary Adoline Lee divorced Shirts with her father’s help.101

Slade, William Rufus, Sr. (1811–72), 46. [A] Private, Company I, Third Platoon, Washington City. William Slade Sr. traveled to Mountain Meadows on Monday and Tuesday with his son and other men from Washington.102 Philip Klingensmith remembered talking to Slade just before the final massacre.103

Slade, William, Jr. (1834–1902), 23. [A] Sergeant, Company I, Third Platoon, Washington City. The younger William Slade arrived at the Meadows on Tuesday with his father and other men from Washington and was seen by John D. Lee and Philip Klingensmith at the Meadows before the massacre.104

Smith, Joseph Hodgetts (1819–90), 38. [B] Private, Company F, First Platoon, Cedar City. A list of massacre participants attributed to John D. Lee and released to the public by his attorney William Bishop identified “Joseph Smith, of Cedar City.”105 However, Lee makes no mention of him in his published confessions, nor is there any mention of Joseph H. Smith by any other eyewitnesses. In 1859 Judge John Cradlebaugh issued an arrest warrant for Smith in connection with the massacre, but it may have resulted merely from the fact that one of the surviving children was recovered from Smith’s home just a short time before.106

Spencer, George (1829–72), 27. [A] Adjutant, Company I, Washington City. In 1867 George Spencer wrote to Mormon apostle Erastus Snow confessing that he was “in that horrid ‘Mountain Meadow affair.’”107 An 1875 article called Spencer a “mono-maniac” about the massacre, adding that “he talked constantly of the part he had enacted in the frightful tragedy.”108

Stewart, William Cameron (1827–95), 30. [A] Second Lieutenant, Company F, First Platoon, Cedar City. On Sunday evening, September 6, William Stewart and Joel White headed to Mountain Meadows, sent by Isaac C. Haight either spur Lee on or, more likely, to call him off. Arriving on Monday after the initial attack, Stewart, in an effort to contain the situation, killed nineteen year-old William Aden between Mountain Meadows and Cedar City. He returned to the Meadows again on Tuesday with the group of men led by John M. Higbee.109 During the final massacre on Friday, September 11, Stewart broke from the ranks of the other militia to chase after and kill emigrants who survived the initial volley of bullets.110 Samuel Knight later added, “He seemed to be filled with an insane desire to slaughter as many as possible, and he hewed them down without the least mercy.”111 One resident of Cedar City, Thomas Willis, recalled that Stewart often spoke about the massacre.112 Stewart was one of the nine men indicted for the massacre in 1874 and lived a life of exile to avoid capture by authorities.113

Stoddard, David Kerr (1830–1913), 27. [B] Musician, Company F, Cedar City. Although no eyewitnesses saw him at Mountain Meadows, Stoddard’s neighbor John Bradshaw recalled seeing him at Cedar City with other men mustered to go to the Meadows.114

Stratton, Anthony Johnson (1824–87), 33. [B] Second Lieutenant, Company E, Second Platoon, Cedar City. John D. Lee identified Anthony Stratton with other militia recruits from Cedar City at the Meadows the night before the final massacre.115

Tait, William (1818–96), 38. [A] Captain, Company F, Cedar City. William Tait, a former drill master in the British Army stationed in India, was one of the few men in the Iron Military District with formal military training. He traveled with John M. Higbee and others in the first wave of militia that left Cedar City on Tuesday, September 8.116Tait admitted being present at the massacre on Friday but claimed that he and his men didn’t kill anyone.117

Thornton, Amos Griswold (1832–1902), 24. [B] Sergeant, Company H, Third Platoon, Pinto. Amos Thornton, accompanied by two others, visited the emigrants in their camp at the Meadows on Sunday, September 6.118 The next day at his home in Pinto, Thornton received orders delivered by Joseph Clewes from Isaac C. Haight to have Lee stop the attack on the emigrants until word could be received from Salt Lake. Albert Hamblin recalled seeing Thornton at Hamblin’s ranch during the week of the massacre, likely to deliver the message Clewes gave him at Pinto.119

Tullis, David Wilson (1833–1902), 24. [A] Private, Company H, First Platoon, Fort Clara. David Tullis worked for Jacob Hamblin at his ranch at Mountain Meadows during September 1857. On Saturday, September 5, Tullis met Benjamin Arthur, Josiah Reeves, and Ellott Willden, who reported the emigrants’ “sauciness” in Cedar City. Tullis would later direct members of the Arkansas company to the south end of the Meadows to camp.120 Tullis admitted being close enough to hear gunfire during the week of the siege. He also saw Indians and militiamen traveling along the road towards the emigrant camp.121 One of the surviving children, six-year-old Rebecca Dunlap, identified an “Englishman named Tullis” as having murdered one of her parents.122 According to Albert Hamblin, Tullis transported the surviving children to Hamblin’s ranch after the massacre.123

Urie, John Main (1835–1921), 22. [A] Adjutant, Third Battalion, Cedar City. John D. Lee identified John Urie as being with other men from Cedar City at the Meadows on the night before the final massacre.124 After the massacre, Urie helped to guard the emigrants’ property and later assisted in bringing it back to Cedar City.125

Western, John (1807–65), 49. [B] Sergeant, Company F, First Platoon, Cedar City. Some accounts name “John Weston” as a massacre participant.126 Although the name is difficult to decipher in the shorthand of the second Lee trial, Nephi Johnson recalled a John “Weyson,” “Weeson,” or “Reeson” taking a wagon to Mountain Meadows the night before the massacre. In longhand transcriptions of the trial, the name was recorded as “Weston” or “Western,” an inaccurate reflection of the original shorthand.127 No one named Weston is known to have lived in southern Utah in 1857. “John Western” is the closest name, but evidence of Western’s participation is inconclusive.128 Johnson may have been referring to John Willis.129

White, Joel William (1831–1914), 26. [A] Captain, Company D, Cedar City. Before the emigrants’ arrival at Mountain Meadows, Joel White accompanied Philip Klingensmith to deliver a message from Isaac Haight to leaders at Pinto.130 When William Stewart killed emigrant William Aden on September 7, White reportedly wounded Aden’s companion, who was able to escape back to the emigrant camp.131 During the massacre, White and Stewart reportedly broke ranks to chase after and kill emigrants who survived the initial shooting. In the middle of the confusion White and Stewart were nearly killed themselves by fellow militiamen mistaking the two for escaped emigrants.132 Although White admitted that he was at the massacre, he claimed that he did not have a gun.133

White, Samuel Dennis (1818–68), 39. [B] Private, Company F, Fifth Platoon, Fort Sidon [Hamilton's Fort]. Although Samuel White was identified as a massacre participant in lists released to the public by John D. Lee’s attorney William Bishop, Lee made no mention of Samuel White in his published confessions.134 White’s widow, Mary, said her husband “opposed the killing of the company.” She also said that White angered Isaac C. Haight by interfering with Indians.135

Wiley, Robert (1809–72), 47. [A] Sergeant, Company E, Third Platoon, Cedar City. Samuel Pollock recalled traveling with Robert Wiley to Mountain Meadows. The night before the massacre Wiley met with John D. Lee, Philip Klingensmith, and other leaders at Hamblin’s Ranch.136

Willden, Ellott (1833–1920), 23. [A] Private, Company F, Fourth Platoon, Cedar City. Ellott Willden, along with Benjamin Arthur and Josiah Reeves, was sent to the Meadows on Friday, September 4, by John M. Higbee to gather information from the emigrants that might justify an attack against them, as well as to encourage them to move further down the trail to where the attack was originally supposed to occur.137 After the first attack on the emigrants, Willden loaned his pair of flintlock pistols to William Stewart, who used them to kill William Aden on Monday, September 7. Willden also saw the bodies of two emigrants who were killed Tuesday night while on their way to Cedar City for help. On Wednesday, Willden said he was forced to dress in Indian apparel and run through emigrant gunfire.138 Lee recalled Willden amusing himself by sitting under a shade tree and shooting in the direction of the emigrant camp with a gun that did not have enough range to reach it.139 Willden, however, told Andrew Jenson in 1892 that he was unarmed during the massacre.140 Willden was one of nine men indicted in September 1874 for their roles in the massacre. He was arrested but never tried.141

Williamson, James (1813–69), 44. [A] Private, Company D, First Platoon, Cedar City. John W. Bradshaw saw James Williamson mustering with other militia recruits in Cedar City, and Joel White recalled traveling to Mountain Meadows with him.142

Willis, John Henry (1835–88), 22. [B] Second Lieutenant, Company G, First Platoon, Cedar City. Although John Willis maintained in his testimony during the trial of John D. Lee that he did not go to the Meadows until after the massacre was over, Phillip Klingensmith said he may have taken his wagon and team to the Meadows the night before the massacre.143 Klingensmith could not remember if Willis joined the party of militiamen at the massacre or remained at Hamblin’s ranch on the north end of Mountain Meadows.144 After the massacre, Willis assisted in transporting some of the surviving children back to Cedar City.145 One of those children, Nancy Saphrona Huff, who lived with Willis until she was recovered in 1859, remembered Willis taking her from the site of the massacre.146

Young, William (1805–75), 52. [A] Private, Company I, Fourth Platoon, Washington City. William Young may have first heard about the massacre plans directly from John D. Lee while visiting Harmony on the night of Saturday, September 5.147 Two days later at his home in Washington, Young was ordered to go with the militia by Harrison Pearce. He traveled to Mountain Meadows with other men from Washington and Santa Clara on Monday, September 7, and arrived on Tuesday. On one occasion he accompanied Lee on a visit to Paiutes in their camp at the Meadows.148 On Friday, September 11, William Young remained at the militia camp with Samuel Pollock and James Pearce. From a vantage point near the camp, he witnessed some of the final massacre.149

Notes

1. The sources for the militia members’ ranks and places of residence are William H. Dame, “Organization of the Iron Military District,” June 1857, L. Tom Perry Special Collections, Harold B. Lee Library, Brigham Young University, Provo, Utah [hereafter cited as BYU]; Muster Rolls for Iron Military District, October 10, 1857, U.S. War Department, Utah Territorial Militia Records, 1849-77, Utah State Archives, Salt Lake City, Utah, microfilm copy located at Family History Library, The Church Of Jesus Christ of Latter-day Saints, Salt Lake City, Utah; James H. Martineau report to Adjutant General James Ferguson, listing Iron Military District officers elected July 28, 1857, reproduced in Hamilton Gardner, “Utah Territorial Militia,” 328–29, typescript, ca. 1929, Church History Library, The Church of Jesus Christ of Latter-day Saints, Salt Lake City, Utah [hereafter cited as LDS Church History Library]. See also 1856 Utah Territorial Census; Utah Territory, 1860 U.S. Federal Census; Morris A. Shirts and Kathryn H. Shirts, A Trial Furnace: Southern Utah’s Iron Mission (Provo, UT: Brigham Young University Press, [2001]), 473–89. The birth and death dates were obtained from family records and census reports.

2. Some accounts of the massacre from secondhand and apocryphal sources often listed individuals as participants in the massacre. Those names have not been included because they cannot be substantiated from the available primary evidence, such as eyewitness accounts of the massacre. In 1859, after Judge John Cradlebaugh conducted an investigation he issued thirty-eight arrest warrants for individuals believed to be connected with the massacre. According to William Rogers, who assisted in Cradlebaugh’s investigation, one witness came forward and presented twenty-five to thirty names of participants. It is unclear how Cradlebaugh obtained the other eight to thirteen names. While most names from Cradlebaugh’s arrest warrants have been identified from other sources, some cannot be verified as participants. These include: William Riggs, [Alexander] Ingram, Ira Allen’s son, Jabes Nomlen [Jabus Nowlin], John W. Adair, [Oscar?] Tyler, Samuel Lewis, Sims Matheny, and Samuel Adair. Two names, Joseph Elang and F. C. McDulange, cannot be identified as individuals living within the Iron Military District in 1857. Two other names, E. Welean and James Price, are likely references to Ellott Willden and James Pearce, respectively. Therefore, only the names that are supported by other evidence are reflected in this appendix. Utah and the Mormons: Speech of Hon. John Cradlebaugh, of Nevada, on the Admission of Utah as a State (Washington, D.C.: L. Towers, 1863), 19–20; Wm. H. Rogers, “The Mountain Me[a]dows Massacre,” Salt Lake City Valley Tan, February 29, 1860. Additionally, Jacob Forney listed a “Bishop Davis” among the “names of the persons the most guilty.” Although, likely a reference to William R. Davies, the bishop at Harmony, no eyewitnesses or other known sources place him at the massacre. J. Forney to A. B. Greenwood, September 22, 1859, in U.S. Congress, Senate, Message of the President of the United States, Communicating with a Resolution of the Senate, Information in Relation to the Massacre at Mountain Meadows, and Other Massacres in Utah Territory, 36th Cong., 1st sess., 1860, S. Doc. 42, p. 86.

3. Notes from meeting with George W. Adair, David O. McKay, Diary, July 27, 1907, Special Collections, Marriott Library, University of Utah, Salt Lake City, Utah, photocopy at LDS Church History Library; Frederick S. Dellenbaugh to Charles Kelly, August 16, 1934, published in Utah Historical Quarterly 37, no. 2 (Spring 1969): 242; William W. Bishop, ed., Mormonism Unveiled; or The Life and Confessions of the Late Mormon Bishop, John D. Lee; (Written by Himself) (St. Louis: Bryan, Brand & Co., 1877), 228–29, 379; William Young, testimony, United States v. John D. Lee, First Trial, Adam Patterson Shorthand Notes 5:35, Jacob S. Boreman, Collection, Huntington Library, San Marino, CA [hereafter cited as Huntington Library], transcription by LaJean Purcell Carruth located in LDS Church History Library; Francis M. Lyman, Diary, September 19, 21, 1895, from Diary Excerpts of Francis M. Lyman, 1892–1896, typescript, in New Mormon Studies CD-ROM: A Comprehensive Resource Library (Salt Lake City: Smith Research Associates, [1998]); Joel White, affidavit, October 9, 1896, Collected Material concerning the Mountain Meadows Massacre, LDS Church History Library.

4. Indictment for murder against George Adair, September 24, 1874, in Case File 31, Utah Second District Court, Criminal Case Files, 1874-77, Series 24291, Utah State Archives, copy located at LDS Church History Library, and Minute Book B, 1869-81, pp. 442-44, Utah, Second District Court (Beaver County), Court Records, 1865-81, Film 485241, LDS Family History Library, original located at Southern Utah University, microfilm copy located at Utah State Archives and photocopy located at LDS Church History Library; Arrest Warrant, December 4, 1874, Minute Book B, 444–45 (The warrant was served on November 2, 1875); John R. Young, “Reminiscences of John R. Young,” Utah Historical Quarterly 3, no. 3 (July 1930): 85; Case dismissal, September 1, 1879, United States v. George Adair Jr., Minute Book B, 452–53; Jabez Sutherland, United States v. John D. Lee, First Trial, Patterson Shorthand 11:23. Judge John Cradlebaugh issued a warrant for a John W. Adair in 1859. Although there was a John Wesley Adair, George W. Adair Jr.’s uncle, he was not present at the massacre, and Cradlebaugh’s warrant was most likely meant for George W. Adair Jr. Utah and the Mormons, 20.

5. Philip Klingon Smith, affidavit, April 10, 1871, in “A Massacre by Mormons,” New York Times, September 14, 1872 and “A Mormon Monstrosity,” New York Herald, September 14, 1872; Philip Klingensmith, testimony, United States v. John D. Lee, First Trial, Boreman Transcript 3:6–7, 30–31.

6. Philip Klingensmith, testimony, United States v. John D. Lee, First Trial, Boreman Transcript 3:4, 16, 24, 90–91; John W. Bradshaw, testimony, United States v. John D. Lee, First Trial, Boreman Transcript 4:77–78; Bishop, Mormonism Unveiled, 232, 379; Jabez Sutherland, United States v. John D. Lee, First Trial, Boreman Transcript 8:4. See also “Lee’s Last Confession,” San Francisco Daily Bulletin Supplement, March 24, 1877; “Lee’s Confession,” Sacramento Daily Record-Union, March 24, 1877. An arrest warrant for “Ira Allen and son” was issued by Judge John Cradlebaugh in 1859. Two of Ira Allen’s sons are listed in the same platoon as their father, Andrew, age 20 and Simeon, age 18. However, it is unclear either went with Ira to the Meadows since they are not named by other known sources. Utah and the Mormons, 19; Dame, “Organization of the Iron Military District,” June 1857; Muster Rolls for Iron Military District, October 10, 1857.

7. Andrew Jenson, interview with Ellott Willden, January 29, 1892, Andrew Jenson, Interviews, Archives of the First Presidency, The Church of Jesus Christ of Latter-day Saints, Salt Lake City, UT; Andrew Jenson, notes of discussion with Mary S. Campbell, January 24, 1892, Mountain Meadows file, Jenson Collection; Andrew Jenson, interview with Mary S. Campbell, January 24, 1892, Jenson Interviews; Andrew Jenson, notes of discussion with David W. Tullis, ca. January 1892, Mountain Meadows file, Andrew Jenson, Collection, [ca. 1871-1942], LDS Church History Library; Andrew Jenson, notes of discussions with Ellott Willden, ca. January 29–30, 1892, Mountain Meadows file, Jenson Collection; C. F. McGlashan, “The Mountain Meadow Massacre,” Sacramento Daily Record, January 1, 1875; Orson F. Whitney, History of Utah, 4 vols. (Salt Lake City: George Q. Cannon & Sons, 1892-1904), 1:699; Conversation with Samuel Knight, recorded in Abraham Hoagland Cannon, Diary, 1879-95, June 13, 1895, typescript, BYU, copy located at LDS Church History Library.

8. Bishop, Mormonism Unveiled, 230, 235, 379.

9. Andrew Jenson, corrections to Hubert H. Bancroft, History of Utah, 552, ca. January 1892, Mountain Meadows file, Jenson Collection; Ellott Willden, corrections to H. H. Bancroft, History of Utah, 552, given to Andrew Jenson, January 28, 1892, Jenson Interviews.

10. Andrew Jenson, notes of discussion with Christopher J. Arthur, ca. January 27, 1892, Mountain Meadows file, Jenson Collection; Elias Morris, statement, February 2, 1892, communicated to Andrew Jenson, Collected Material concerning the Mountain Meadows Massacre; Joseph Clewes, in “Mountain Meadows Massacre: Joe Clewes’ Statement Concerning It,” Salt Lake Daily Herald, April 5, 1877.

11. Philip Klingensmith, testimony, United States v. John D. Lee, First Trial, Boreman Transcript 3:78; William Young, testimony, United States v. John D. Lee, First Trial, Boreman Transcript 4:50, 5:205–6; Samuel Pollock, testimony, United States v. John D. Lee, First Trial, Boreman Transcript 4:62, 5:180–81, 192; Samuel McMurdy, testimony, United States v. John D. Lee, Second Trial, Boreman Transcript 1:34–35;“Lee’s Last Confession”; “Lee’s Confession,” Sacramento Daily Record-Union, March 24, 1877; Bishop, Mormonism Unveiled, 236, 379; “Lee’s Confession,” New York Herald, March 22, 1877; Henry Higgins, affidavit, April 20, 1859, printed in Utah and the Mormons, 42; Jabez Sutherland, United States v. John D. Lee, First Trial, Boreman Transcript 8:4. Judge John Cradlebaugh issued a warrant in 1859 for William Bateman’s arrest. Utah and the Mormons, 20.

12. Samuel Pollock, testimony, United States v. John D. Lee, First Trial, Boreman Transcript 4:62, 5:180–81; Bishop, Mormonism Unveiled, 232, 379; Jabez Sutherland, United States v. John D. Lee, First Trial, Boreman Transcript 8:4. The dating Lee gives in Mormonism Unveiled does not agree with the dates given in other massacre sources. Apparently in an attempt to shield himself from more guilt, Lee shifted many events one day later than they actually occurred so that he would not be present at the first attack on Monday.

13. William Young, testimony, United States v. John D. Lee, First Trial, Boreman Transcript 4:49; James Pearce, testimony, United States v. John D. Lee, First Trial, Boreman Transcript 4:103–4; Bishop, Mormonism Unveiled, 228, 379: “Lee’s Last Confession”; “Lee’s Confession,” Sacramento Daily Record-Union, March 24, 1877. In his closing argument for the first John D. Lee trial, defense attorney Jabez Sutherland contended that Clark remained at the militia camp during the massacre; however, this assertion is not supported by the trial testimony of eyewitnesses. Two of those who did remain at the camp during the massacre, William Young and James Pearce, saw Clark at the Meadows, but they did not say he stayed behind at the camp during the massacre. Sutherland, United States v. John D. Lee, First Trial, Boreman Transcript 8:4, Patterson Shorthand 11:38-39.

14. “Joe Clewes’ Statement”; Ellott Willden’s corrections of Clewes account, made during interview with Andrew Jenson, January 28, 1892, Jenson Interviews; Morris, statement, February 2, 1892, Collected Material concerning the Mountain Meadows Massacre; Andrew Jenson, notes of discussion with Christopher J. Arthur, ca. January 27, 1892, Mountain Meadows file, Jenson Collection; Bishop, Mormonism Unveiled, 232, 379; James Haslam, testimony, United States v. John D. Lee, Second Trial, Boreman Transcript 1:13–14.

15. Albert Hamblin, statement, in James Henry Carleton, Report on the Subject of the Massacre at the Mountain Meadows, in Utah Territory, in September, 1857, of One Hundred and Twenty Men, Women and Children, Who Were from Arkansas (Little Rock, AR: True Democrat Steam Press, 1860), 12, 15.

16. Carleton, Report of the Massacre, 17, 24–25.

17. Samuel Pollock, testimony, United States v. John D. Lee, First Trial, Boreman Transcript 4:62, 5:180–81; Bishop, Mormonism Unveiled, 232, 379; Higgins, affidavit, April 20, 1859, printed in Utah and the Mormons, 42; Jabez Sutherland, United States v. John D. Lee, First Trial, Boreman Transcript 8:4. Judge John Cradlebaugh issued a warrant in 1859 for Ezra Curtis’s arrest. Utah and the Mormons, 20.

18. Andrew Jenson, notes of discussion with William Barton, January 1892, Mountain Meadows file, Jenson Collection; John Chatterley to Andrew Jens[o]n, September 18, 1919, Mountain Meadows file, Jenson Collection; Morris, statement, February 2, 1892, Collected Material concerning the Mountain Meadows Massacre; Klingon Smith, affidavit, April 10, 1871, in “Massacre by Mormons” and “Mormon Monstrosity”; James Henry Martineau to F. E. Eldredge, July 23, 1907, “The Mountain Meadow Catastroph[e],” LDS Church History Library.

19. Andrew Jenson, notes of discussion with William Barton, January 1892, Mountain Meadows file, Jenson Collection; William Mathews, testimony, United States v. John D. Lee, First Trial, Boreman Transcript 4:47.

20. “Lee’s Last Confession”; “Lee’s Confession,” Sacramento Daily Record-Union, March 24, 1877; Bishop, Mormonism Unveiled, 245–47, 380–81; Klingon Smith, affidavit, April 10, 1871, in “Massacre by Mormons” and “Mormon Monstrosity.”

21. Indictment for murder against William H. Dame, September 24, 1874, in Case File 31 and Case File 34, Criminal Case Files; Dispatch, November 18, 1874, in “Miscellaneous: Colonel Dame, Another of the Mountain Meadows Veterans, Arrested,” Salt Lake Daily Tribune, November 19, 1874; Case dismissal, September 14, 1876, United States v. William H. Dame, Minute Book 1, 1874–77, p. 466, Utah District Court (Beaver County), Court Records 1865–81, film 485239, LDS Family History Library, original at Beaver County Recorders Office, Beaver, UT; J. C. Y., September 14, 1876, in “The Lee Case,” Salt Lake Daily Tribune, September 17, 1876.

22. Albert Hamblin, statement, in Carleton, Report of the Massacre, 15.

23. Bishop, Mormonism Unveiled, 232, 379.

24. Bishop, Mormonism Unveiled, 232, 379. Columbus’s father John Freeman and older brothers William and John W. Freeman are listed on the June 1857 and October 10, 1857 militia rosters for Company I, first and third platoons, Washington County. Dame, “Organization of the Iron Military District,” June 1857; Muster Rolls for Iron Military District, October 10, 1857. Judge John Cradlebaugh issued a warrant for Columbus Freeman’s arrest in 1859. Utah and the Mormons, 19.

25. Bishop, Mormonism Unveiled,218, 381;“Lee’s Confession,” New York Herald, March 22, 1877; Klingon Smith, affidavit, April 10, 1871, in “Massacre by Mormons” and “Mormon Monstrosity”; Philip Klingensmith, testimony, United States v. John D. Lee, First Trial, Boreman Transcript 3:33; Shirts and Shirts, Trial Furnace, 386; Nephi Johnson, testimony, United States v. John D. Lee, Second Trial, Boreman Transcript 1:60; Dame, “Organization of the Iron Military District,” June 1857; Muster Rolls for Iron Military District, October 10, 1857.

26. Bishop, Mormonism Unveiled, 218–20, 232; “Lee’s Last Confession”; “Lee’s Confession,” Sacramento Daily Record-Union, March 24, 1877; Nephi Johnson, affidavit, July 22, 1908, First Presidency Cumulative Correspondence, 1900-1949, LDS Church History Library; Andrew Jenson, interview with Ellott Willden, January 29, 1892, Jenson Interviews; Andrew Jenson, notes of discussion with Mary Campbell, January 24, 1892, Mountain Meadows file, Jenson Collection; Andrew Jenson, notes of discussions with Ellott Willden, ca. January 29–30, 1892, Mountain Meadows file, Jenson Collection; Andrew Jenson, notes of discussion with William Barton, January 1892, Mountain Meadows file, Jenson Collection; Klingon Smith, affidavit, April 10, 1871, in “Massacre by Mormons” and “Mormon Monstrosity”; Nephi Johnson, testimony, United States v. John D. Lee, Second Trial, Boreman Transcript 1:43–44; Morris, statement, February 2, 1892, Collected Material concerning the Mountain Meadows Massacre.

27. “Lee’s Last Confession”; “Lee’s Confession,” Sacramento Daily Record-Union, March 24, 1877; Bishop, Mormonism Unveiled, 245; Klingon Smith, affidavit, April 10, 1871, in “Massacre by Mormons” and “Mormon Monstrosity”; William Young, testimony, United States v. John D. Lee, First Trial, Boreman Transcript 4:55–56; Nephi Johnson, testimony, United States v. John D. Lee, Second Trial, Boreman Transcript 1:57.

28. Haslam, interview, December 4, 1884, pp. 12–13, in Rogerson Transcripts and Notes; James Haslam, testimony, United States v. John D. Lee, Second Trial, Boreman Transcript 1:13–14.

29. Indictment, September 24, 1874, Jacob Smith Boreman, Notebook containing copies of court records relating to the trials of John D. Lee, HM 16915, Huntington Library. In 1859, Judge Cradlebaugh issued an arrest warrant for “Jacob Haight, President of the Cedar City stake.” Utah and the Mormons,19. See also Forney to Greenwood, September 22, 1859, in Senate, Message of the President, Doc. 42, p. 86.

30. Bishop, Mormonism Unveiled, 228–29, 379; “Lee’s Last Confession”; “Lee’s Confession,” Sacramento Daily Record-Union, March 24, 1877; James M. Mangum, deposition, July 5, 1875, Minute Book B, 324; William Young, testimony, United States v. John D. Lee, First Trial, Boreman Transcript 5:203; Jacob Hamblin, testimony, United States v. John D. Lee, Second Trial, Boreman Transcript 1:100, see Patterson Shorthand 3:16. According to a family legend Oscar’s wife Mary Ann kept him from participating in the massacre. “Mary Ann, learning there was to be trouble the next day, gave Oscar a double dose of epicac which induced vomiting and rendered him too ill to be involved in any way.” Shauna Brimhall, “History of Oscar Hamblin,” typescript, 3, Daughters of Utah Pioneers.

31. Frank F. Jorden, “A True Story,” ca. 1871, 87–88, typescript copy located in Mountain Meadows Massacre Research Files; Bishop, Mormonism Unveiled, 232, 379; J. G. Sutherland, closing argument for defense, United States v. John D. Lee, First Trial, Josiah Rogerson Shorthand 10:29, Rogerson Transcripts and Notes. According to family tradition, when Richard Harrison was approached about going to Mountain Meadows he ordered the men off his property. Telephone conversation of Nada Gardner, August 19, 2002, recorded by Brian Reeves, Mountain Meadows Massacre Research Files. A warrant for a Harrison was issued by Judge John Cradlebaugh in 1859. Utah and the Mormons, 20. Although, most family history records place his birth date at March 8, 1808, the Pinto, Utah, cemetery records give his date of birth as April 30, 1807. See Pinto, Utah cemetery records, microfilm, LDS Family History Library.

32. Carleton, Report of the Massacre, 17, 24–25; McGlashan, “Mountain Meadow Massacre”; J. H. Beadle, Western Wilds, and the Men Who Redeem Them (Cincinnati: Jones Brothers, 1878), 500; Andrew Jenson, corrections to Hubert H. Bancroft, History of Utah, 553, ca. January 1892, Mountain Meadows file, Jenson Collection; James Lynch, affidavit, July 27, 1859, enclosed in S. H. Montgomery to A. B. Greenwood, August 17, 1859, Bureau of Indian Affairs, Letters Received by the Office of Indian Affairs, Utah Superintendency Papers, National Archives Microfilm Publications 234, National Archives, Washington, D.C., microfilm copy located at LDS Church History Library; J[ames] Lynch, statement, in “The Mountain Meadows Massacre: Surviving Children of the Murdered Fix the Crime upon the Mormons,” San Francisco Daily Evening Bulletin, May 31, 1859; S. B. Honea, account, in “More Outrages on the Plains,” Los Angeles Star, October 24, 1857; Forney to Greenwood, September 22, 1859, in Senate, Message of the President, Doc. 42, p. 86.

33. McGlashan, “Mountain Meadow Massacre”; Carleton, Report of the Massacre, 24–26; Honea, account, in “More Outrages on the Plains”; Subpoena, February 25, 1875, in Case File 31, Criminal Case Files; Subpoena, May 20, 1875, in Minute Book B, 303. Brothers Henry and McCan Young were traveling back to Utah from San Bernardino, California, when they encountered the last adult emigrant to escape the massacre, probably Abel Baker. The Youngs offered assistance to young Baker and provided a horse for his journey. Baker, too injured and weary to push on to California, agreed to return with the Youngs back to the Utah settlements. When they approached the crossing of the Muddy River, they were met by Ira Hatch and a company of Paiutes who killed the emigrant. McGlashan, “Mountain Meadow Massacre,” mentions a J. M. Young. Beadle, Western Wilds, 500–1, also mentions a John M. Young, who he says witnessed the killing of the last emigrant. There is little documentation found on either Young brother, and this could be referring to either one of them.

34. “The Mormon Massacre: Names of All the White Murderers,” New York Herald, May 22, 1877, also reprinted in “The Massacre: The Names of All the Whites Who Participated in It,” Salt Lake Daily Tribune, May 30, 1877. The name “George Hanley” that appears in this newspaper list is likely a reference to George Hawley. Even though it said George was dead, he had actually just left Utah. Iowa, Shelby County, Grove Township, 1880 U.S. Census, population schedule, 8. This list, which claimed to be published posthumously from a handwritten note by John D. Lee, included several names that were not associated with other lists attributed to Lee, nor are the names verified from other sources. Those names, as listed in the article, are: J. [Jehiel] McConnel, “two men named Curtis,” J. [Jonathon] Pugmire [Sr.], Sam Adair, Nate Adair, George Hanley [Hawley], Hairgraves, and William Hamblin. Ezra Curtis is known to have lived in southern Utah in 1857 and was identified as a massacre participant by eyewitness accounts. The name Hairgraves does not resemble the name of any known individual residing within the jurisdiction of the Iron Military District.

35. Bishop, Mormonism Unveiled, 228, 379; “Lee’s Last Confession,” Sacramento Daily Record-Union, March 24, 1877.

36. John Hawley to Joseph Smith III, June 12, 1884, in Saints’ Herald, 31, no. 26 (June 28, 1884): 412; Autobiography of John Pierce Hawley (Hamilton, MO: Robert Hawley, 1981), 15–16.

37. Bishop, Mormonism Unveiled, 228, 379; Andrew Jenson, “Lee’s Book, Names of Participants Corrections,” undated, Mountain Meadows file, Jenson Collection. Legend claimed that William Hawley was chained to a wagon wheel by fellow militiamen because he opposed the massacre. Frank Beckwith, “Was William Hawley Chained to a Wagon Wheel?” chapter 2, in “Shameful Friday: A Critical Study of the Mountain Meadows Massacre,” Huntington Library. Judge John Cradlebaugh issued a warrant for Hawley’s arrest in 1859. Utah and the Mormons, 19–20.

38. Philip Klingensmith, testimony, United States v. John D. Lee, First Trial, Boreman Transcript 3:3; Morris, statement, February 2, 1892, Collected Material concerning the Mountain Meadows Massacre; “Lee’s Last Confession”; “Lee’s Confession,” Sacramento Daily Record-Union, March 24, 1877.

39. Philip Klingensmith, testimony, United States v. John D. Lee, First Trial, Boreman Transcript 3:4; Andrew Jenson, notes of discussion with Mary Campbell, January 24, 1892, Mountain Meadows file, Jenson Collection.

40. “Joe Clewes’ Statement”; Isaac C. Riddle, testimony, United States v. John D. Lee, First Trial, Boreman Transcript 4:120; Bull Valley Snort [John M. Higbee], statement, February 1894, typescript, Collected Material concerning the Mountain Meadows Massacre; Higgins, affidavit, April 20, 1859, printed in Utah and the Mormons, 42.

41. Bishop, Mormonism Unveiled, 232–33; “Lee’s Last Confession”; “Lee’s Confession,” Sacramento Daily Record-Union, March 24, 1877; Philip Klingensmith, testimony, United States v. John D. Lee, First Trial, Boreman Transcript 3:7–10, 72–76, 82; Andrew Jenson, notes of discussion with David W. Tullis, ca. January 1892, Mountain Meadows file, Jenson Collection; Andrew Jenson, notes of discussions with Ellott Willden, ca. January 29–30, 1892, Mountain Meadows file, Jenson Collection; Bull Valley Snort [John M. Higbee], statement, February 1894, typescript, Collected Material concerning the Mountain Meadows Massacre; Jabez Sutherland, United States v. John D. Lee, First Trial, Boreman Transcript 8:4.

42. Bishop, Mormonism Unveiled, 236, 379; Philip Klingensmith, testimony, United States v. John D. Lee, First Trial, Boreman Transcript 3:15; Andrew Jenson, corrections to Hubert H. Bancroft, History of Utah, 552, ca. January 1892, Mountain Meadows file, Jenson Collection. “Wilden says, ‘Higbee did not obey orders at this point, hoping the orders would countermanded.’” Andrew Jenson, corrections to Hubert H. Bancroft, History of Utah, 552, ca. January 1892, Mountain Meadows file, Jenson Collection; Whitney, History of Utah, 1:706n†.

43. Philip Klingensmith, testimony, United States v. John D. Lee, First Trial, Boreman Transcript 3:17–18.

44. “Lee’s Confession,” Sacramento Daily Record-Union, March 24, 1877; Bishop, Mormonism Unveiled, 244; Notes from meeting George W. Adair, found in McKay Diary, July 27, 1907; “Lee’s Last Confession.”

45. Indictment for murder against John M. Higbee, September 24, 1874, in Case File 31 and Case File 32, Criminal Case Files. Judge John Cradlebaugh issued a warrant for Higbee’s arrest in 1859. Utah and the Mormons, 19. See also Forney to Greenwood, September 22, 1859, in Senate, Message of the President, Doc. 42, p. 86.

46. While still in hiding Higbee released his account of the massacre under the pseudonym “Bull Valley Snort.” Bull Valley Snort [John M. Higbee], statement, February 1894, typescript, Collected Material concerning the Mountain Meadows Massacre. After the charges against him were dismissed, John Higbee and a few of his supporters released affidavits in his defense. John M. Higbee, affidavit, June 15, 1896, Collected Material concerning the Mountain Meadows Massacre; Daniel S. Macfarlane, affidavit, June 29, 1896, Collected Material concerning the Mountain Meadows Massacre; William Tait, affidavit, June 30, 1896, Collected Material concerning the Mountain Meadows Massacre (It should be noted that Tait’s affidavit has almost identical wording to one filed by Daniel Macfarlane on June 29, 1896 in Cedar City); Joel W. White, affidavit, October 9, 1896, Collected Material concerning the Mountain Meadows Massacre.

47. Bishop, Mormonism Unveiled, 230, 232–34, 247, 379; “Lee’s Last Confession”; “Lee’s Confession,” Sacramento Daily Record-Union, March 24, 1877; Philip Klingensmith, testimony, United States v. John D. Lee, First Trial, Boreman Transcript 3:7–8, 82; Samuel Pollock, testimony, United States v. John D. Lee, First Trial, Boreman Transcript 4:62; Nephi Johnson, testimony, United States v. John D. Lee, Second Trial, Boreman Transcript 1:57; Jabez Sutherland, United States v. John D. Lee, First Trial, Boreman Transcript 8:4. Judge John Cradlebaugh issued a warrant for Charles Hopkins’s arrest in 1859. Utah and the Mormons, 20.

48. Bishop, Mormonism Unveiled, 379; “Mormon Massacre” (this source simply lists the surname, “Humphrey”); “Mormon Assassins: Another List of Men Who Were at Mountain Meadows,” New York Herald, June 26, 1877 (“John Humphrey: lived with old man Woods at Cedar”); Andrew Jenson, “Lee’s Book, Names of Participants Corrections,” Mountain Meadows file, Jenson Collection; Ann Richey, List of Mountain Meadow Participants, enclosed in Ernest Cook to Samuel W. Taylor, July 6, 1979, LDS Church History Library. Ann Richey, born at Pinto on August 24, 1866, prepared a handwritten list of massacre participants found in a box of papers owned by Ernest Cook’s wife Helen, a descendant of Ann Richey. Cook was inclined to believe that the list was from a first-hand knowledge, but admitted he was unsure of its origin. The list contains names in alphabetical order from A to L. It is unclear whether the other half is in existence anywhere. All but two names can be confirmed as participants from other sources. The two exceptions are John Bateman, likely a reference to William Bateman and Tom Edwards who cannot be confirmed as a resident within the jurisdiction of the Iron Military District. Ann Richey, List of Mountain Meadow Participants, enclosed in Cook to Taylor, July 6, 1979.

49. Bishop, Mormonism Unveiled, 232, 379.

50. Philip Klingensmith, testimony, United States v. John D. Lee, First Trial, Boreman Transcript 3:24, 90–91.

51. Bishop,Mormonism Unveiled, 232, 380; “Lee’s Confession,” New York Herald, March 22, 1877;Andrew Jenson, “Lee’s Book, Names of Participants Corrections,” Mountain Meadows file, Jenson Collection.

52. John Jacobs, “Not There,” Salt Lake Daily Herald, March 30, 1877.

53. Philip Klingensmith, testimony, United States v. John D. Lee, First Trial, Boreman Transcript 3:10–11; Andrew Jenson, “Lee’s Book, Names of Participants Corrections,” Mountain Meadows file, Jenson Collection; Bishop, Mormonism Unveiled, 232, 380; Jabez Sutherland, United States v. John D. Lee, First Trial, Boreman Transcript 8:4. Swen is likely the “Irvin Jacobs” named by Lee in the “Confessions” section of Mormonism Unveiled. According to family tradition another of the Jacobs brothers, Christopher was forced to join the company going to Mountain Meadows. “He told them they could force him to go but they could not force him to kill anyone after he got there. This he didn’t do as he wouldn’t fire a gun.” However, another account places Christopher Jacobs somewhere else at the time of the massacre. John Chatterley claimed Christopher Jacobs accompanied him on a reconnaissance mission along the Sevier River to look for signs of the approaching U.S. army which was feared to have taken a southern mountain pass into Utah. See James W. Sorensen, “Christopher Jacobs: 1819–1907,” Mountain Meadows Massacre Research Files; John Chatterley to Andrew Jens[o]n, September 18, 1919, Mountain Meadows file, Jenson Collection.

54. Bishop, Mormonism Unveiled, 232, 379; Andrew Jenson, “Lee’s Book, Names of Participants Corrections,” Mountain Meadows file, Jenson Collection. During the closing arguments of the first Lee Trial, defense attorney Jabez Sutherland pointed out that none of the trial testimony placed Jewkes at the massacre. Jabez Sutherland, United States v. John D. Lee, First Trial, Patterson Shorthand 11:23.

55. Indictment for murder against Samuel Jewkes, September 24, 1874, in Case File 31 and Case File 33, Criminal Case Files.

56. In 1892, Cedar City resident Mary Campbell told historian Andrew Jenson that Jewkes was given two children from the massacre. One of those children, a girl between seven and nine years old, reportedly pointed out her father’s killer and “afterwards disappeared.” Andrew Jenson, notes of discussion with Mary S. Campbell, January 24, 1892, Mountain Meadows file, Jenson Collection; Andrew Jenson, interview with Mary S. Campbell, January 24, 1892, Jenson Interviews. Contemporary records indicate that the only child given to Jewkes was Prudence Angeline Dunlap. Because she was five years old at the time of the massacre and seven when she returned to Arkansas, she was likely the one Campbell remembered. Cedar City Stake, Record of Children Blessed 1856-63, LDS Church History Library; Lt. Kearny, “List of the Children Saved from the Mountain Meadows Massacre,” Los Angeles (CA) Southern Vineyard, June 3, 1859.

57. Nephi Johnson, testimony, United States v. John D. Lee, Second Trial, Boreman Transcript 1:43–85; Lyman Diary, September 19, 21, 1895; Johnson, affidavit, July 22, 1908, First Presidency Cumulative Correspondence; Johnson, affidavit, November 30, 1909, Collected Material concerning the Mountain Meadows Massacre; Nephi Johnson to Anthon H. Lund, March 1910, in Collected Material concerning the Mountain Meadows Massacre; Samuel Pollock, testimony, United States v. John D. Lee, First Trial, Boreman Transcript 5:191, 199 (Pollock recalled seeing a white man on a hill above the massacre which was likely Nephi Johnson); Bishop, Mormonism Unveiled, 220, 232, 237, 243, 380; “Lee’s Last Confession”; “Lee’s Confession,” Sacramento Daily Record-Union, March 24, 1877. In his testimony at Lee’s second trial, Johnson claimed he saw the massacre from the hill after he chased his horse who got loose from being tied to a tree. Nephi Johnson, testimony, United States v. John D. Lee, Second Trial, Boreman Transcript 1:47, 74, 81. Josiah F. Gibbs, The Mountain Meadows Massacre (Salt Lake City: Salt Lake Tribune, 1910), 34: “Nephi Johnson’s horse had learned the trick of untying his halter rope when it was carelessly fastened.” Judge John Cradlebaugh issued a warrant for his arrest in 1859. Utah and the Mormons, 20.

58. Lyman Diary, Sept. 21, 1895. Johnson’s statement was in response to one from George Adair, who said that very few people were killed by whites. Lyman Diary, Sept. 19, 1895. Adair did not have the perspective of viewing the entire scene during the massacre, as Johnson did. Johnson, who directed the Indians in the Friday attack, may have answered as he did to downplay his own role.

59. Joel White, testimony, United States v. John D. Lee, First Trial, Boreman Transcript 4:9; Samuel Pollock, testimony, United States v. John D. Lee, First Trial, Boreman Transcript 4:69; Nephi Johnson, testimony, United States v. John D. Lee, Second Trial, Boreman Transcript 1:47; Jacob Hamblin, testimony, United States v. John D. Lee, Second Trial, Boreman Transcript 1:102.

60. Andrew Jenson, interview with Ellott Willden, January 29, 1892, Jenson Interviews; Andrew Jenson, additional interview with Ellott Willden, January 1892, Jenson Interviews; Andrew Jenson, notes of discussions with Ellott Willden, ca. January 29–30, 1892, Mountain Meadows file, Jenson Collection; Whitney, History of Utah, 1:704.

61. Philip Klingensmith, testimony, United States v. John D. Lee, First Trial, Boreman Transcript 3:82–83; Klingon Smith, affidavit, April 10, 1871, in “Massacre by Mormons” and “Mormon Monstrosity”; Bishop, Mormonism Unveiled, 232, 380. See also “Lee’s Confession,” New York Herald, March 22, 1877.

62. “The Mountain Meadow Mas[s]acre: Statement of Mrs. G. D. Cates, One of the Children Spared at the Time,” Dardanelle Arkansas Independent, August 27, 1875, also published in “The Mountain Meadow Massacre: Statement of One of the Few Survivors,” Arkansas Gazette, September 1, 1875. See also Johnson, affidavit, July 22, 1908, First Presidency Cumulative Correspondence. Klingensmith himself suggested that at least one of the children died at Hamblin’s ranch, but from wounds. Philip Klingensmith, testimony, United States v. John D. Lee, First Trial, Boreman Transcript 3:20.

63. Philip Klingensmith, testimony, United States v. John D. Lee, First Trial, Boreman Transcript 3:21–22, 24, 90–91; “Lee’s Last Confession”; “Lee’s Confession,” Sacramento Daily Record-Union, March 24, 1877; Klingon Smith, affidavit, April 10, 1871, in “Massacre by Mormons” and “Mormon Monstrosity”; Bishop, Mormonism Unveiled, 244–45; Forney to Greenwood, September 22, 1859, in Senate, Message of the President, Doc. 42, p. 86; Jabez Sutherland, United States v. John D. Lee, First Trial, Boreman Transcript 8:4. Before Klingensmith was sworn in as a witness in John D. Lee’s first trial, prosecuting attorney William Carey entered a motion of “nolle prosequi” in his behalf. Indictment for murder against Philip Klingensmith, September 24, 1874, in Case File 31, Criminal Case Files; William Carey, United States v. John D. Lee, First Trial, Patterson Shorthand, 2:32.

64. Conversation Samuel Knight, in Cannon Diary, June 13, 1895; Samuel Knight, testimony, United States v. John D. Lee, Second Trial, Boreman Transcript 1:18–19, 23–29; Andrew Jenson, notes of discussions with Samuel Knight, ca. January 1892, Mountain Meadows file, Jenson Collection; Bishop, Mormonism Unveiled, 228, 238, 241–43, 380; “Lee’s Last Confession”; “Lee’s Confession,” Sacramento Daily Record-Union, March 24, 1877; Samuel Knight, affidavit, August 11, 1904, First Presidency Cumulative Correspondence; Jabez Sutherland, United States v. John D. Lee, First Trial, Boreman Transcript 8:4.

65. Nephi Johnson, testimony, United States v. John D. Lee, Second Trial, Boreman Transcript 1:62–63.

66. Andrew Jenson, notes regarding the Mountain Meadows Massacre, undated, Mountain Meadows file, Jenson Collection; Andrew Jenson, notes of discussion with Samuel Knight, ca. January 1892, Mountain Meadows file, Jenson Collection; Bishop, Mormonism Unveiled,228, 380; Andrew Jenson, “Lee’s Book, Names of Participants Corrections,” Mountain Meadows file, Jenson Collection; Whitney, History of Utah, 1:699.

67. Juanita Brooks, Dudley Leavitt, Pioneer to Southern Utah (n.p., 1942), 33; Juanita Brooks, On the Ragged Edge: The Life and Times of Dudley Leavitt (Salt Lake City: Utah State Historical Society, 1973), 76–78.

68. Samuel Knight, testimony, United States v. John D. Lee, Second Trial, Boreman Transcript 1:19–22; Andrew Jenson, notes of discussion with Samuel Knight, ca. January 1892, Mountain Meadows file, Jenson Collection; Andrew Jenson, corrections to Hubert H. Bancroft, History of Utah, 550, ca. January 1892, Mountain Meadows file, Jenson Collection; Benjamin Platt, Reminiscences, 1899–1905, typescript, 5–6, LDS Church History Library; Gibbs, Mountain Meadows Massacre, 53–54;Nephi Johnson, testimony, United States v. John D. Lee, Second Trial, Boreman Transcript 1:45; Jacob Hamblin, testimony, United States v. John D. Lee, Second Trial, Boreman Transcript 1:86–87, 94; Knight, affidavit, August 11, 1904, First Presidency Cumulative Correspondence.

69. Bishop, Mormonism Unveiled, 232–33, 238–40; “Lee’s Last Confession”; “Lee’s Confession,” Sacramento Daily Record-Union, March 24, 1877; Philip Klingensmith, testimony, United States v. John D. Lee, First Trial, Boreman Transcript 3:9–10, 72–76; Nephi Johnson, testimony, United States v. John D. Lee, Second Trial, Boreman Transcript 1:46, 49-50, 67, 76; Samuel McMurdy, testimony, United States v. John D. Lee, Second Trial, Boreman Transcript 1:34–35, 37, 42; Jacob Hamblin, testimony, United States v. John D. Lee, Second Trial, Boreman Transcript 1:28-31, 87, 94; Samuel Knight, testimony, United States v. John D. Lee, Second Trial, Boreman Transcript 1:28–31; Annie Elizabeth Hoag, testimony, United States v. John D. Lee, First Trial, Boreman Transcript 4:29; Andrew Jenson, notes of discussion with Samuel Knight, ca. January 1892, Mountain Meadows file, Jenson Collection; Johnson, affidavit, July 22, 1908, First Presidency Cumulative Correspondence.

70. C. J. S., March 25, 1877, in “Shooting of Lee!” Salt Lake Daily Tribune, March 30, 1877; “Lee’s Last Confession”; “Lee’s Confession,” Sacramento Daily Record-Union, March 24, 1877; Bishop, Mormonism Unveiled, 213–92, 380; Indictment for murder against John D. Lee, September 24, 1874, in Case File 31 and Case File 40, Criminal Case Files; Collins R. Hakes, testimony, April 24, 1916, Collected Material concerning the Mountain Meadows Massacre; Jabez Sutherland, United States v. John D. Lee, First Trial, Boreman Transcript 8:4. Judge John Cradlebaugh issued a warrant for Lee’s arrest in 1859. Utah and the Mormons, 19. See also Forney to Greenwood, September 22, 1859, in Senate, Message of the President, Doc. 42, 86.

71. Higgins, affidavit, April 20, 1859, printed in Utah and the Mormons, 42; Bishop, Mormonism Unveiled, 232, 380; Samuel Pollock, testimony, United States v. John D. Lee, First Trial, Boreman Transcript 5:180–82. Judge John Cradlebaugh issued a warrant for Loveridge’s arrest in 1859. Utah and the Mormons, 20.

72. Bishop,Mormonism Unveiled, 232, 237, 380; “Lee’s Last Confession”; “Lee’s Confession,” Sacramento Daily Record-Union, March 24, 1877. See also Daniel S. Macfarlane, affidavit, June 29, 1896, in Collected Material concerning the Mountain Meadows Massacre.

73. Bishop, Mormonism Unveiled, 240; “Mormon Assassins.”

74. Andrew Jenson, interview with Daniel S. Macfarlane, January 27, 1892, Jenson Interviews; Bishop, Mormonism Unveiled, 254. According to Lee’s account in Mormonism Unveiled: “I remember a circumstance that Haight then related to me about Dan. McFarland. He said: ‘Dan will make a bully warrior.’ I said, ‘Why do you think so?’ ‘Well,’ said he, ‘Dan came to me and said, “You must get me another knife, because the one I have got has no good stuff in it, for the edge turned when I cut a fellow’s throat that day at the Meadows. I caught one of the devils that was trying to get away, and when I cut his throat it took all the edge off of my knife.” I tell you that boy will make a bully warrior.’” Italics in original. Judge John Cradlebaugh issued a warrant for Daniel Macfarlane’s arrest in 1859. Utah and the Mormons, 19.

75. Utah and the Mormons, 20.

76. Bishop, Mormonism Unveiled, 232, 380.

77. Samuel McMurdy, testimony, United States v. John D. Lee, Second Trial, Boreman Transcript 1:33–34; Philip Klingensmith, United States v. John D. Lee, First Trial, Boreman Transcript 3:8; Jabez Sutherland, United States v. John D. Lee, First Trial, Boreman Transcript 8:4.

78. Bishop, Mormonism Unveiled, 232, 238, 241–42, 380; “Lee’s Last Confession”; “Lee’s Confession,” Sacramento Daily Record-Union, March 24, 1877; Samuel McMurdy, testimony, United States v. John D. Lee, Second Trial, Boreman Transcript 1:36–37, 42; Philip Klingensmith, testimony, United States v. John D. Lee, First Trial, Boreman Transcript 3:7–8; Andrew Jenson, “Lee’s Book, Names of Participants Corrections,” Mountain Meadows file, Jenson Collection. When asked whether he participated in the killing of the wounded emigrants, Samuel McMurdy refused to answer invoking his fifth amendment right not to incriminate himself. Samuel McMurdy, testimony, United States v. John D. Lee, Second Trial, Boreman Transcript 1:42.

79. Samuel McMurdy, testimony, United States v. John D. Lee, Second Trial, Boreman Transcript 1:43; Klingon Smith, affidavit, April 10, 1871, in “Massacre by Mormons” and “Mormon Monstrosity”; Philip Klingensmith, testimony, United States v. John D. Lee, First Trial, Boreman Transcript 3:21.

80. Mangum, deposition, July 5, 1875, Minute Book B, 324–25; William Young, testimony, United States v. John D. Lee, First Trial, Boreman Transcript 4:49, 58.

81. William Young, testimony, United States v. John D. Lee, First Trial, Patterson Shorthand 5:35, Boreman Transcript 4:58. “Who accompanied you [to the Mountain Meadows?] I think there was a man by the name of Slade as well as I can recollect and this James Mangram I spoke of and I recollect them better going back than I do coming.” William Young, testimony, United States v. John D. Lee, First Trial, Patterson Shorthand 5:35. Judge Cradlebaugh issued a warrant in 1859 for James Mangum. Utah and the Mormons, 20.

82. Bishop, Mormonism Unveiled, 229, 231, 380. The Boreman and Rogerson transcripts include John Mangum on Jabez Sutherland’s list of eyewitnesses in his closing address of John D. Lee’s first trial, yet the original shorthand only includes the surname without a first name. The shorthand could refer to either John or James. Jabez Sutherland, United States v. John D. Lee, First Trial, Patterson Shorthand, 11:23, Rogerson Shorthand, 10:29, Boreman Transcript 8:4. A warrant for John Mangum’s arrest was issued by Judge John Cradlebaugh in 1859. Utah and the Mormons, 20.

83. Bishop, Mormonism Unveiled, 228, 380.

84. Morris, statement, February 2, 1892, Collected Material concerning the Mountain Meadows Massacre. Laban Morrill, a member of the Cedar City stake high council and known opponent of the massacre plans, also claimed to have made the proposal to contact Brigham Young. Joseph Sudweeks, “Concerning Myself: The Life of Laban Morrill,” typescript, 10–11, copy in Mountain Meadows Massacre Research Files.

85. Morris, statement, February 2, 1892, Collected Material concerning the Mountain Meadows Massacre; Andrew Jenson, notes of discussion with William Barton, January 1892, Mountain Meadows file, Jenson Collection. According to Andrew Jenson’s original notes from his interview with William Barton, the Tan Bark Council was a “consultation of three consisting of I. C. Haight Wm. H. Dame and Elias Morris.” Morris’s name was later erased and replaced with “another man.” Andrew Jenson, notes of discussion with William Barton, January 1892, Mountain Meadows file, Jenson Collection.

86. William C. Stewart to Wilford Woodruff and Council, November 1, 1890, Wilford Woodruff, General Correspondence Files, 1887–98, LDS Church History Library.

87. Morris, statement, February 2, 1892, Collected Material concerning the Mountain Meadows Massacre; Andrew Jenson, notes of discussion with Christopher J. Arthur, ca. January 27, 1892, Mountain Meadows file, Jenson Collection; “Joe Clewes’ Statement.”

88. William Young, testimony, United States v. John D. Lee, First Trial, Boreman Transcript 4:56–57; Philip Klingensmith, testimony, United States v. John D. Lee, First Trial, Boreman Transcript 3:10; Bishop, Mormonism Unveiled, 228, 380; Washington Branch Manuscript History, LDS Church History Library.

89. Autobiography of John Pierce Hawley, 16; Jabez Sutherland, United States v. John D. Lee, First Trial, Boreman Transcript 8:4. Judge John Cradlebaugh issued a warrant for Harrison Pearce’s arrest in 1859. Utah and the Mormons, 20.

90. James Pearce, testimony, United States v. John D. Lee, First Trial, Boreman Transcript 4:100–8, 114–15; Bishop, Mormonism Unveiled, 228, 380; Philip Klingensmith, testimony, United States v. John D. Lee, First Trial, Boreman Transcript 3:10; Andrew Jenson, “Lee’s Book, Names of Participants Corrections,” Mountain Meadows file, Jenson Collection.

91. James Pearce, testimony, United States v. John D. Lee, First Trial, Boreman Transcript 4:105; Samuel Pollock, testimony, United States v. John D. Lee, First Trial, Boreman Transcript 5:199; William Young, testimony, United States v. John D. Lee, First Trial, Boreman Transcript 4:54–55; Jabez Sutherland, United States v. John D. Lee, First Trial, Boreman Transcript 8:4. Judge John Cradlebaugh issued a warrant for a Jim Price in 1859, which was likely meant for James Pearce. Utah and the Mormons, 20. Although eyewitnesses William Young and Samuel Pollock verify Pearce’s claim that he was sick and remained at the militia camp during the massacre, one legend claimed James was shot at by his father Harrison Pearce for attempting to protect an emigrant girl from the slaughter. The bullet reportedly grazed the side of his face creating a noticeable scar. McGlashan, “Mountain Meadow Massacre”; Frank Beckwith, chapter 6, in “Shameful Friday: A Critical Study of the Mountain Meadows Massacre.” Another version of this legend that gives no names appears in a newspaper article. “Among the Mormons: An Interesting Journey to the Southern Settlements,” New York Herald, June 27, 1877. Juanita Brooks claimed this legend referred to James Pearce’s twelve year old brother Thomas Jefferson Pearce. Juanita Brooks, The Mountain Meadows Massacre, 2d ed. (Norman: University of Oklahoma Press, 1991), 90. Philip Klingensmith raised the possibility that multiple members of the Pearce family may have been at the massacre, stating he thought he saw “Jim Pearce and brother and his sons but I would not be positive.” Philip Klingensmith, testimony, United States v. John D. Lee, First Trial, Boreman Transcript 3:10. Klingensmith likely confused James Pearce with his father Harrison Pearce, since James had no sons in 1857. The available sources do not confirm that James had any brothers at the massacre.

92. Samuel Pollock, testimony, United States v. John D. Lee, First Trial, Boreman Transcript 4:62–64, 5:180–82; Bishop, Mormonism Unveiled, 232, 380; Higgins, affidavit, April 20, 1859, printed in Utah and the Mormons, 42.

93. Samuel Pollock, testimony, United States v. John D. Lee, First Trial, Boreman Transcript 5:184, 199; Jabez Sutherland, United States v. John D. Lee, First Trial, Boreman Transcript 8:4. Judge John Cradlebaugh issued a warrant for Pollock’s arrest in 1859. Utah and the Mormons, 20.

94. Andrew Jenson, interview with Ellott Willden, January 29, 1892, Jenson Interviews; Andrew Jenson, notes of discussion with Mary S. Campbell, January 24, 1892, Mountain Meadows file, Jenson Collection; Andrew Jenson, interview with Mary S. Campbell, January 24, 1892, Jenson Interviews; Andrew Jenson, notes of discussion with David W. Tullis, ca. January 1892, Mountain Meadows file, Jenson Collection; Andrew Jenson, notes of discussions with Ellott Willden, ca. January 29–30, 1892, Mountain Meadows file, Jenson Collection; McGlashan, “Mountain Meadow Massacre”; Whitney, History of Utah, 1:699

95. Samuel Pollock, testimony, United States v. John D. Lee, First Trial, Boreman Transcript 5:181.

96. Isaac Riddle, testimony, United States v. John D. Lee, First Trial, Boreman Transcript 4:118–21; Andrew Jenson, interview with Ellott Willden, January 29, 1892, Jenson Interviews.

97. Richard S. Robinson, testimony, United States v. John D. Lee, First Trial, Boreman Transcript 5:319–24; Andrew Jenson, notes of discussion with Richard S. Robinson, ca. January 1892, Mountain Meadows file, Jenson Collection; Albert Hamblin, statement, in Carleton, Report of the Massacre, 15; Joel White, testimony, United States v. John D. Lee, First Trial, Boreman Transcript 3:122; Joel White, testimony, United States v. John D. Lee, Second Trial, Boreman Transcript 1:15–17; Philip Klingensmith, testimony, United States v. John D. Lee, First Trial, Boreman Transcript 3:5–6; “Joe Clewes’ Statement”; Andrew Jenson, interview with William Barton, January 1892, Jenson Interviews; Andrew Jenson, notes of discussion with William Barton, January 1892, Mountain Meadows file, Jenson Collection; Jesse N. Smith, Journal and Autobiography, 1855-1906, September 8-9, 1857, LDS Church History Library; Jesse N. Smith, testimony, United States v. John D. Lee, First Trial, Boreman Transcript 5:216-17.

98. Bishop, Mormonism Unveiled, 220, 226–28, 380; “Lee’s Last Confession”; “Lee’s Confession,” Sacramento Daily Record-Union, March 24, 1877; Mangum, deposition, July 5, 1875, Minute Book B, 324;Andrew Jenson, “Lee’s Book, Names of Participants Corrections,” Mountain Meadows file, Jenson Collection; Jabez Sutherland, United States v. John D. Lee, First Trial, Boreman Transcript 8:4.

99. Philip Klingensmith, testimony, United States v. John D. Lee, First Trial, Boreman Transcript 3:28, 31;“Lee’s Last Confession”; “Lee’s Confession,” Sacramento Daily Record-Union, March 24, 1877.

100. Bishop, Mormonism Unveiled, 226, 243.

101. Ambrose Shurtz, History of Peter Shirts and his Descendants, 93–94, undated family history located in the LDS Family History Library; John D. Lee, Mormon Chronicle: The Diaries of John D. Lee, 1848-1876, ed. Robert Glass Cleland and Juanita Brooks, 2 vols. (San Marino, CA: Huntington Library, 2003), 1:258, June 4–6, 1860.

102. Bishop, Mormonism Unveiled, 228, 380; William Young, testimony, United States v. John D. Lee, First Trial, Patterson Shorthand 5:35, 42, Boreman Transcript 4:49, 58; James Pearce, testimony, United States v. John D. Lee, First Trial, Boreman Transcript 4:103.

103. Klingon Smith, affidavit, April 10, 1871, in “Massacre by Mormons” and “Mormon Monstrosity”; Philip Klingensmith, testimony, United States v. John D. Lee, First Trial, Boreman Transcript 3:10–11. In 1859, Judge Cradlebaugh issued an arrest warrant for William Slade. The warrant could have been intended for either William Rufus Slade Sr. or his son William Slade Jr. Utah and the Mormons, 19. In his closing argument for the first Lee trial, defense attorney Jabez Sutherland contended that Slade remained at the militia camp during the massacre; however, this assertion is not supported by the trial testimony of eyewitnesses. Two of those who stayed at the camp during the massacre, William Young and James Pearce, saw Slade at the Mountain Meadows but did not say he remained in the camp. Jabez Sutherland, United States v. John D. Lee, First Trial, Boreman Transcript 8:4, Patterson Shorthand 11:38-39.

104. Bishop, Mormonism Unveiled, 228, 380; Philip Klingensmith, testimony, United States v. John D. Lee, First Trial, Boreman Transcript 3:10.

105. Bishop, Mormonism Unveiled, 380; “Lee’s Confession,” New York Herald, March 22, 1877; “Mormon Assassins.”

106. Utah and the Mormons, 20; Kearny, “List of the Children Saved.” Alexander Ingram was another man who had one of the surviving children in 1859 and shortly thereafter Cradlebaugh issued an arrest warrant for him. Utah and the Mormons, 19; Kearny, “List of the Children Saved”; Rogers, “Mountain Me[a]dows Massacre.” Ingram, a Harmony resident, was recorded speaking in a Church meeting after John D. Lee had left Harmony and was not identified by any of the witnesses at Mountain Meadows. Harmony Branch, Minutes, September 6, 1857, Huntington Library, sometimes misidentified as Rachel Lee’s journal.

107. George Spencer to Erastus Snow, March 26, 1867, Incoming Correspondence, Brigham Young, Office Files, LDS Church History Library.

108. McGlashan, “Mountain Meadow Massacre.”

109. Andrew Jenson, interview with Ellott Willden, January 29, 1892, Jenson Interviews; Andrew Jenson, notes of discussions with Ellott Willden, ca. January 29–30, 1892, Mountain Meadows file, Jenson Collection; Bishop, Mormonism Unveiled, 230, 235, 380; “Lee’s Last Confession”; “Lee’s Confession,” Sacramento Daily Record-Union, March 24, 1877; McGlashan, “Mountain Meadow Massacre”; Jabez Sutherland, United States v. John D. Lee, First Trial, Boreman Transcript 8:4. See also “Joe Clewes’ Statement”; Jacob Hamblin, testimony, United States v. John D. Lee, Second Trial, Boreman Transcript 1:107–8; Higgins, affidavit, April 20, 1859, printed in Utah and the Mormons, 42.

110. Andrew Jenson, corrections to Hubert H. Bancroft, History of Utah, 555, ca. January 1892, Mountain Meadows file, Jenson Collection; Philip Klingensmith, testimony, United States v. John D. Lee, First Trial, Boreman Transcript 3:15–16 (Although Klingensmith said that Stewart was on horseback, it appears that Stewart was on foot during the massacre. Ira Allen, John Higbee, and Daniel Macfarlane were on horseback.); William Young, testimony, United States v. John D. Lee, First Trial, Boreman Transcript 4:49–50; Samuel Pollock, testimony, United States v. John D. Lee, First Trial, Boreman Transcript 4:64.

111. Conversation with Samuel Knight, in Cannon Diary, June 13, 1895; Andrew Jenson, interview with Ellott Willden, January 29, 1892, Jenson Interviews; Andrew Jenson, notes of discussions with Ellott Willden, ca. January 29–30, 1892, Mountain Meadows file, Jenson Collection; McGlashan, “Mountain Meadow Massacre.” It is unclear exactly what Lee and Knight saw William Stewart do, since both men were with the lead wagons and Stewart was likely in the rear procession with the emigrant men. Knight may have been echoing Lee, whose statement may have been influenced through his editor by McGlashan, “Mountain Meadow Massacre.”

112. Thomas T. Willis, testimony, United States v. John D. Lee, First Trial, Boreman Transcript 4:31, 33.

113. Stewart to Woodruff and Council, November 1, 1890, in Woodruff General Correspondence; Indictment for murder against William C. Stewart, September 24, 1874, in Case File 31 and Case File 35, Criminal Case Files. Judge John Cradlebaugh issued a warrant for William Stewart’s arrest in 1859. Utah and the Mormons, 19.

114. John W. Bradshaw, testimony, United States v. John D. Lee, First Trial, Boreman Transcript 4:85.

115. Bishop, Mormonism Unveiled, 232, 380; “Lee’s Confession,” New York Herald, March 22, 1877; “Mormon Massacre”; “Mormon Assassins”; Andrew Jenson, “Lee’s Book, Names of Participants Corrections,” Mountain Meadows file, Jenson Collection.In some sources he is listed as Arthur Stratton.

116. Bishop, Mormonism Unveiled, 230, 380. On William Tait’s military experience, see Kim S. Whitehead, “William and Elizabeth Tait, A History of Their Life,” 2, unpublished family history, copy in Mountain Meadows Massacre Research Files; Adonis Findlay Robinson, History of Kane County (Salt Lake City: Utah Printing, 1970), 535.

117. William Tait, affidavit, June 30, 1896, Collected Material concerning the Mountain Meadows Massacre; Mormonism Unveiled, 230, 380; “Mormon Massacre”; “Lee’s Confession,” New York Herald, March 22, 1877; “Mormon Assassins”; Andrew Jenson, “Lee’s Book, Names of Participants Corrections,” Mountain Meadows file, Jenson Collection.

118. Andrew Jenson, notes of discussion with David W. Tullis, ca. January 1892, Mountain Meadows file, Jenson Collection.

119. Andrew Jenson, notes of discussions with Ellott Willden, ca. January 29–30, 1892, Mountain Meadows file, Jenson Collection; “Joe Clewes’ Statement”; Albert Hamblin, statement, in Carleton, Report of the Massacre, 15. Judge John Cradlebaugh issued a warrant for a Thornton’s arrest in 1859. Utah and the Mormons, 20.

120. Andrew Jenson, notes of discussion with David W. Tullis, ca. January 1892, Mountain Meadows file, Jenson Collection.

121. David W. Tullis, interview with Jacob Forney and William Rodgers, April 13, 1859, in J. Forney to A. B. Greenwood, August 1859, in Senate, Message of the President, Doc. 42, pp. 76–77.

122. Although Lynch claimed in a July 27, 1859, affidavit that Rebecca Dunlap identified Tullis as her mother’s killer, according to another account attributed to James Lynch, “A very intelligent little girl, named Becky Dunlap, pointed out to me at Santa Clara an Englishman named Tellus, whome she says she saw murder her father.” Lynch, statement, in “Mountain Meadows Massacre”; James Lynch, affidavit, July 27, 1859, in Senate, Message of the President, Doc. 42, 81-85.

123. Albert Hamblin, interview with Jacob Forney, in Forney to Greenwood, August 1859, in Senate, Message of the President, Doc. 42, p. 78; Albert Hamblin, statement, in Carleton, Report of the Massacre, 14; Forney to Greenwood, September 22, 1859, in Senate, Message of the President, Doc. 42, p. 86. A family legend claimed three women from Pinto, knowing of the massacre plans, put make-up over Tullis’ upper-body, arms and face, and placed hot bricks around his bed to make him look like he had a fever. When the militia leaders came to get him he would groan and act like he was terribly ill, and was thus able to escape participation. Tullis made no mention of faking ill during the two known statements he made regarding the massacre (Forney and Jenson). One of the women that allegedly helped Tullis was the wife of Richard Harrison. The Harrisons were living at Cedar City at the time of the massacre and Richard was also implicated as a participant. Sharon M. Bliss, ed., “Autobiographies/Biography of Tullis, Mangum, Pulsipher, Maughan, Davenport, Dahle, Griffin, etc.,” typescript, 2, [1995], copy at LDS Family History Library; Lelia M[angum] Bradford, “David Wilson Tullis,” typescript, 1988, copy in Mountain Meadows Research Files; Verda Tullis, “David Wilson Tullis: Son of David Tullis and Euphemia Wilson,” 4, typescript, ca. 1953, Mountain Meadows Massacre Research Files; “David Wilson Tullis,” Conquerors of the West: Stalwart Mormon Pioneers ([Sandy, Utah]: Agreka Books, 1999), 4:2600–2602.

124. Bishop, Mormonism Unveiled, 232, 380; Andrew Jenson, “Lee’s Book, Names of Participants Corrections,” Mountain Meadows file, Jenson Collection.

125. Philip Klingensmith, testimony, United States v. John D. Lee, First Trial, Boreman Transcript 3:90–91; Nephi Johnson, testimony, United States v. John D. Lee, Second Trial, Boreman Transcript 1:70.

126. Bishop, Mormonism Unveiled, 380; “Mormon Assassins.” After interviewing several massacre participants, Jenson concluded there was no John Weston at the massacre. Andrew Jenson, “Lee’s Book, Names of Participants Corrections,” Mountain Meadows file, Jenson Collection.

127. Nephi Johnson, testimony, United States v. John D. Lee, Second Trial, Patterson Shorthand, 2:54, 62 (Josiah Rogerson wrote the name “Weyson” over the symbol for the name. The symbol indicates the letters “WSN” or “RSN”–the vowels are ambiguous– but could not be read “Western” or “Weston” as appears in the longhand transcriptions.); Nephi Johnson, testimony, United States v. John D. Lee, Second Trial, Boreman Transcript 1:44, 55 (“Weston”); Nephi Johnson, testimony, United States v. John D. Lee, Second Trial, Rogerson Transcript 1:72 (“Weston”), 84 (“Western”); Bishop, Mormonism Unveiled, 340, 346 (“Western”).

128. According to a family member who interweaves family legend and fiction, John Western worked as a distiller in Cedar City and secretly sold five barrels of whiskey to the Fancher party shortly after they left town. Later, he also provided some whiskey to the militia going to Mountain Meadows as a gift for the Paiutes. And although he supplied both sides, Western himself did not go to Mountain Meadows. Robert E. Jones, From Malaga to the Mountain: The Story of Matilda (Las Vegas: Jones & Holt, 1971), 271–74.

129. Philip Klingensmith, testimony, United States v. John D. Lee, First Trial, Boreman Transcript 3:8; Thomas T. Willis, testimony, United State v. John D. Lee, First Trial, Boreman Transcript 4:32–33.

130. Joel White, testimony, United States v. John D. Lee, First Trial, Boreman Transcript 3:120–22; Joel White, testimony, United States v. John D. Lee, Second Trial, Boreman Transcript 1:15–18; Philip Klingensmith, testimony, United States v. John D. Lee, First Trial, Boreman Transcript 3:5–6; “Lee’s Last Confession”; “Lee’s Confession,” Sacramento Daily Record-Union, March 24, 1877; Jabez Sutherland, United States v. John D. Lee, First Trial, Boreman Transcript 8:4.

131. Bishop, Mormonism Unveiled, 230, 235, 380; “Lee’s Last Confession”; “Lee’s Confession,” Sacramento Daily Record-Union, March 24, 1877.

132. Andrew Jenson, corrections to Hubert H. Bancroft, History of Utah, 555, ca. January 1892, Mountain Meadows file, Jenson Collection; Andrew Jenson, notes of discussions with Ellott Willden, ca. January 29–30, 1892, Mountain Meadows file, Jenson Collection.

133. Joel White, testimony, United States v. John D. Lee, First Trial, Boreman Transcript 4:6, 19, 21.Judge John Cradlebaugh issued a warrant for Joel White’s arrest in 1859. Utah and the Mormons, 20.

134. Bishop, Mormonism Unveiled, 380; “Mormon Massacre”; “Mormon Assassins.” Samuel White’s name does not appear in the Lee confessions given to Bishop published in Mormonism Unveiled, 213–92, or those given to Sumner Howard published in “Lee’s Last Confession”; “Lee’s Confession,” Sacramento Daily Record-Union, March 24, 1877.

135. Andrew Jenson, notes of discussion with Mary H. White, ca. January 24, 1892, Mountain Meadows file, Jenson Collection.

136. Samuel Pollock, testimony, United States v. John D. Lee, First Trial, Boreman Transcript 4:62, 5:180–82; Philip Klingensmith, testimony, United States v. John D. Lee, First Trial, Boreman Transcript 3:8–9; Bishop,Mormonism Unveiled, 232, 380; “Lee’s Last Confession”; “Lee’s Confession,” Sacramento Daily Record-Union, March 24, 1877; Jabez Sutherland, United States v. John D. Lee, First Trial, Boreman Transcript 8:4.

137. Andrew Jenson, interview with Ellott Willden, January 29, 1892, Jenson Interviews; Andrew Jenson, notes of discussions with Ellott Willden, ca. January 29–30, 1892, Mary S. Campbell, January 24, 1892, and David W. Tullis, ca. January 1892, Mountain Meadows file, Jenson Collection; Conversation with Samuel Knight, recorded in Cannon Diary, June 13, 1895; McGlashan, “Mountain Meadow Massacre”; Whitney, History of Utah, 1:699.

138. Andrew Jenson, interview with Ellott Willden, January 29, 1892, Jenson Interviews; Andrew Jenson, notes of discussions with Ellott Willden, ca. January 29–30, 1892, Mountain Meadows file, Jenson Collection; Ellott Willden’s corrections of Clewes account, made during interview with Andrew Jenson, January 28, 1892, Jenson Interviews; “Joe Clewes’ Statement.”

139. Bishop, Mormonism Unveiled, 230, 380; “Lee’s Last Confession”; “Lee’s Confession,” Sacramento Daily Record-Union, March 24, 1877. Lee refers to Willden as “Alexander Wilden,” however Andrew Jenson, who interviewed Ellott, noted that Alexander and Ellott Willden were the same person in “Lee’s Book, Names of Participants Corrections,” Mountain Meadows file, Jenson Collection.

140. Andrew Jenson, corrections to Hubert H. Bancroft, History of Utah, 552, ca. January 1892, Mountain Meadows file, Jenson Collection.

141. Indictment for murder against Ellott Willden, September 24, 1874, in Case File 31, Criminal Case Files, and Minute Book B, 431–33. Judge John Cradlebaugh issued a warrant for E. Welean in 1859. This may have been Ellott Willden. Utah and the Mormons, 19.

142. John W. Bradshaw, testimony, United States v. John D. Lee, First Trial, Boreman Transcript 4:84–85; Joel White, testimony, United States v. John D. Lee, First Trial, Boreman Transcript 3:124; Jabez Sutherland, United States v. John D. Lee, First Trial, Boreman Transcript 8:4, Rogerson Shorthand 10:40. Jenson speculated that Williamson may have been one who “divulged” information about the massacre to investigators. Andrew Jenson, “Lee’s Book, Names of Participants Corrections,” Mountain Meadows file, Jenson Collection.

143. John Henry Willis, testimony, United States v. John D. Lee, First Trial, Boreman Transcript 4:39–45; Philip Klingensmith, testimony, United States v. John D. Lee, First Trial, Boreman Transcript 3:8; Thomas T. Willis, testimony, United State v. John D. Lee, First Trial, Boreman Transcript 4:32–33.

144. Philip Klingensmith, testimony, United States v. John D. Lee, First Trial, Boreman Transcript 3:11.

145. John Henry Willis, testimony, United States v. John D. Lee, First Trial, Boreman Transcript 4:39–45; Klingon Smith, affidavit, April 10, 1871, in “Massacre by Mormons” and “Mormon Monstrosity”; Philip Klingensmith, testimony, United States v. John D. Lee, First Trial, Boreman Transcript 3:21.

146. “Statement of Mrs. G. D. Cates.” Judge John Cradlebaugh issued a warrant for Willis’s arrest in 1859. Utah and the Mormons, 19.

147. “Gilbert Morse,” Salt Lake Daily Tribune, September 28, 1876; Annie Elizabeth Hoag, testimony, United States v. John D. Lee, First Trial, Boreman Transcript 4:25. At least two people remember seeing William Young with other men from Harmony before Lee left with the Paiutes for Mountain Meadows. Although Young was among the original settlers of Harmony, by the late summer of 1857 he made his home in Washington. William Young and John D. Lee had a history of bad feelings toward each other dating to the time the Church had its headquarters in Nauvoo. See Times and Seasons 3, no. 16 (June 15, 1842): 820–21 and 4, no. 4 (January 16, 1843): 80; Alfred Douglas Young, Autobiography, BYU Special Collections; Brown Diary, December 3, 1854, March 18, 1855.

148. William Young, testimony, United States v. John D. Lee, First Trial, Boreman Transcript 4:54–55; Bishop,Mormonism Unveiled, 228–29, 380; “Lee’s Last Confession”; “Lee’s Confession,” Sacramento Daily Record-Union, March 24, 1877; Jabez Sutherland, United States v. John D. Lee, First Trial, Boreman Transcript 8:4.

149. William Young, testimony, United States v. John D. Lee, First Trial, Boreman Transcript 4:55–54, 5:210; Samuel Pollock, testimony, United States v. John D. Lee, First Trial, Boreman Transcript 5:185, 199; James Pearce, testimony, United States v. John D. Lee, First Trial, Boreman Transcript 4:103, 105; Nephi Johnson, testimony, United States v. John D. Lee, Second Trial, Boreman Transcript 1:57–58.